Incarnation is one of the central doctrines of Christianity: Along with the doctrine of the Trinity, it was established in the first ecumenical councils. To be a member of the World Council of Churches, and thereby be considered as a Christian church or a denomination, a church needs to confess to both Trinity and the dual nature of Christ, that is, the incarnation.
The Doctrine of Incarnation
According to the council of Chalcedon (451), that solidified the incarnation dogma, “one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, [is] acknowledged in two natures which undergo no confusion, no change, no division, no separation; … the property of both natures is preserved and comes together into a single person and single subsistent being (hypostasis); he is not parted or divided into two persons, but is one and the same only-begotten Son, God, Word, Lord Jesus Christ.”
What incarnation means in its classical formulation, then, is that Jesus Christ...
- Deane-Drummond, C. (2009). Christ and evolution: Wonder and wisdom. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
- Evans, C. S. (Ed.). (2006). Exploring kenotic Christology: The self-emptying of god. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hick, J. (2005). The metaphor of god incarnate (2nd ed.). London: SCM.Google Scholar
- Marmodoro, A., & Hill, J. (Eds.). (2011). The metaphysics of incarnation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Morris, T. (1986). Logic of the god incarnate. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
- Shults, F. L. (2008). Christology and science. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar