Studies on Swarm Intelligence are developed from the discoveries and researches of collective behaviors emerged from the social animals or insect group. More than 50 years ago, biologists have reported that a new kind of intelligence form can emerge from some social insects, fish, birds, and mammals. For example, African termites (Macrotermes bellicosus) can build nest that may reach a diameter of 30 m and a height of 6 m with complex internal structure (Grasse 1984). These skyscrapers are built by millions of tiny (1–2-mm long) and completely blind individuals. Apparently, in terms of cognitive or communicational abilities, the complexity of an individual termite is not intelligent enough for designing and generating such complex system. Another example of collective behavior is the food recruitment in ant colony. At the beginning of the 1990s, Jean-Louis Deneubourg and his collaborators (1991) found there is a high probability for a colony of ants to...
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