Encyclopedia of Entomology

2008 Edition
| Editors: John L. Capinera

Mouthparts of Hexapods

  • Severiano F. Gayubo
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_4772

The hexapods are trignathan, that is to say they present three pairs of buccal appendages, each one of them situated in the corresponding cephalic segment: a pair of mandibles (mandibular segment), a first pair of maxillae (maxillary segment), and a second pair of maxillae that fused, form the labium (labial segment).

Recently, certain authors affirm that the classic point of view, according to which the true capacity of “biting” by the Dicondylia [Thysanura (Zygentoma) plus Pterygota] is functionally correlated to the acquisition of dicondylic mandibles, cannot be maintained, taking into account that the capacity of “biting” transversely is a trait characteristic of the hexapods. Therefore, the division of the mandibles into mono- and dicondylic is not fitting (Koch 2001); because of this, and owing to the great variability existing in the hexapods, this author prefers to treat separately the mandibles of each one of the large groups: Collembola, Protura, Diplura, Archaeognatha,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Bitsch J (1973) Morphologie de la tête des insects. Partie Générale. In Grassé, PP (Dir.) Traité de Zoologie VIII (I):3–100Google Scholar
  2. Koch M (2001) Mandibular mechanisms and the evolution of hexapods. Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37:129–174Google Scholar
  3. Matsuda R (1965) Morphology and evolution of the insect head. Mem Am Entomol Inst 4:1–334Google Scholar
  4. Quénnec E (2001) Insights into arthropod head evolution. Two heads in one: the end of the “endless dispute”? Ann Soc Entomol Fr 37:51–70Google Scholar
  5. Snodgrass RE (1951) Comparative studies on the head of mandibulate arthropods. Comstock, Ithaca, New York, NYGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Severiano F. Gayubo
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad de SalamancaSalamancaSpain