Encyclopedia of Entomology

2008 Edition
| Editors: John L. Capinera

Musk Thistle Suppression Using Weevils for Biological Control

  • L. T. Kok
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_4734

Musk thistle, Carduus thoermeri Weinmann = Carduus nutansL. (Campanulatae: Asteraceae) is an invasive Eurasian weed that has become widespread in the contiguous United States. It reproduces by seed and was first reported in the United States in 1953 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Being a highly competitive weed, it has replaced much of the native vegetation in pastures, rangelands, croplands, and along state highways in many parts of the USA and Canada. Its success is due to its prolific seed production, seed longevity, and lack of natural enemies to suppress it. As it spread rapidly in the absence of any native insects capable of suppressing it, the United States Department of Agriculture started a program in search of its natural enemies in Italy in the early 1960s. The Canada Department of Agriculture provided funds for the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control (now CABI Bioscience) to extend the search across Europe from western France to Austria. As a result of this search,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Kok LT, Surles WW (1975) Successful biocontrol of musk thistle by an introduced weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus. Environ Entomol 4:1025–1027Google Scholar
  2. Kok LT, Ward RH, Grills CC (1975) Biological studies of Ceuthorhynchidius horridus (Panzer), an introduced weevil for thistle control. Ann Entomol Soc Am 68:503–505Google Scholar
  3. Kok (1986) Impact of Trichosirocalus horridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carduus thistles in pastures. Crop Prot 5:214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kok LT (1998) Biological control of musk and plumeless thistles. Recent Res Dev Entomol 2:33–45Google Scholar
  5. Sieburth PJ, Kok LT, Lentner M (1983) Factors influencing the effectiveness of Trichosirocalus horridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the control of Carduus thistles. Crop Prot 2:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. T. Kok
    • 1
  1. 1.Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA