Encyclopedia of Entomology

2008 Edition
| Editors: John L. Capinera

Venoms of Ectoparasitic Wasps

  • David B. Rivers
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_3956

The complex interactions that occur between ectoparasitic wasps and their hosts ultimately lead to altered host development, physiology, and behavior. Precisely how these host changes come about is poorly understood, but in most cases involving ectoparasitic wasps, a venom is injected into the host. Venoms of ectoparasitic non-aculeate Hymenoptera (“Parasitica”) fall into two categories based on the impact on the host: those that evoke paralysis and those that are non-paralytic. The vast majority of ectoparasitic species studied produce paralyzing venoms. Such species are considered idiobionts and the venom confers an adaptive advantage in the relationship with the host: a mobile host can be permanently or temporarily paralyzed during egg laying by the female wasp. A still-mobile host is also a potential threat to developing parasitoids, consequently these venoms are more often permanent paralyzing agents. Paralyzing venoms are typically produced by the adult female wasp, however, for...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Beard RL (1963) Insect toxins and venoms. Annu Rev Entomol 8:1–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Piek T (1986) Venoms of the Hymenoptera. Academic Press, London, UK, 570 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Quicke DLJ (1997) Parasitic wasps. Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 470 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Rivers DB, Ruggerio L, Yoder JA (1999) Venom from Nasonia vitripennis: a model for understanding the roles of venom during parasitism by ectoparasitoids. Trends Entomol 2:1–17Google Scholar
  5. Schmidt JO (1982) Biochemistry of insect venoms. Annu Rev Entomol 27:339–368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Rivers
    • 1
  1. 1.Loyola CollegeBaltimoreUSA