Encyclopedia of Entomology

2008 Edition
| Editors: John L. Capinera

Grass Miner Moths (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae)

  • John B. Heppner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_1171
Grass miner moths, family Elachistidae, comprise about 723 species worldwide, but most are Palearctic (472 sp.), and many are in the genus Elachista. Two subfamilies are used, or only tribes: Perittiinae and Elachistinae. The family is part of the super family Gelechioidea in the section Tineina, subsection Tineina, of the division Ditrysia. Adults small (5–23 mm wingspan), with head smooth-scaled; haustellum scaled; labial palpi upcurved but sometimes porrect; maxillary palpi minute, 1 to 2-segmented. Wings narrow and lanceolate, with reduced venation, but with large hindwing fringes (Fig. 49). Maculation often white with various markings or bands, or darker, sometimes with iridescence. Adults are often crespuscular or nocturnal, but some are diurnal. Larvae are leafminers (sometimes gregarious) or stem miners, especially on grasses (Gramineae) and related plant groups like Juncaceae and Cyperaceae, but other plant families are also utilized.
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References

  1. Braun AF (1948) Elachistidae of North America (Microlepidoptera). Mem Am Entomol Soc 13:1–110, pl. 26Google Scholar
  2. Kaila L (1996–1999) A revision of the Nearctic Elachistidae s.l. (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 27:217–238 (1996); Acta Zoologica Fennica 206:1–93 (1997), 211:1–235 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. Keila L (1999) Phylogeny and classification of the Elachistidae s.s. (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). Syst Entomol 24:139–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Traugott-Olsen E (1995–1996) Phylogeny of the Elachistinae s.str. (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae). SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia 23:153–180, 257–290, 417–449 (1995); 24:129–149 (1996)Google Scholar
  5. Traugott-Olsen E, Nielsen ES (1977) The Elachistidae (Lepidoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. In: Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 6:1–299. Scandinavian Science Press, KlampenborgGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • John B. Heppner
    • 1
  1. 1.Florida State Collection of ArthropodsGainesvilleUSA