Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea: Phylloxeridae)
Grape phylloxera is a primitive aphid that feeds and develops on grapevines (Vitis species). It is notorious for the damage it caused to viticulture first in France, then globally as it was introduced and spread into vineyards in nearly every grape-growing region of the world in the middle to latter part of the nineteenth century. Its native range is North America east of the Rocky Mountains, the southwestern USA, and well into Mexico and Central America to as far south as Venezuela. Grape phylloxera has had a checkered nomenclatural history, and the genus names Pemphigus, Rhizaphis, Peritymbia, Viteus, and Daktulosphaira as well as Phylloxera have been applied to it. For many years, Phylloxerawas the most commonly applied name so the common name and Latin genus name were one and the same. This name was subsiding from use after 1952, however, and Russell cleared up the nomenclatural mess more than thirty years ago. However, there is no phylogenetic hypothesis for the Phylloxeridae so...
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