There are an increasing number of problems associated with the use of chemical pesticides, including emergence of resistant insects, elimination of non-target insects, and environmental contamination. Thus, the need for alternative biological insecticides that are cost- effective and environmentally safe is greater than ever. As a result, interest in microbial insecticides is increasing. Microbiological pathogens include various species of bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses. The best-known example of a microbiological insecticide, which is used in large scale against agriculture and forest pests, is the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (commercially known as Bt).
Viruses comprise another important class of insect pathogens that are being considered as good alternative biological insecticides due to their specificity for insect hosts. At least eight families of insect viruses are known, but the viruses most commonly used as viral bioinsecticides are those from Baculoviridae...
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