Encyclopedia of Entomology

2008 Edition
| Editors: John L. Capinera

Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

  • Eileen A. Buss
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_1027
The Cynipoidea [Hymenoptera: Apocrita (Parasitica)] superfamily contains plant-feeding (phytophagous) and parasitic wasp species, but is best known for the gall wasps (family Cynipidae). The superfamily includes about 3,000 described species. The number of families within the Cynipoidea is a matter of debate. Some researchers subdivide the group into six families: Cynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, Figitidae, Charipidae, and Eucoilidae. Others use different classifications, including four families (Cynipidae, Ibaliidae, Figitidae, and Himalocynipidae), or five families (Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, Cynipidae, and Figitidae).
  • Order: Hymenoptera
    • Suborder: Apocrita (Parasitica)
      • Superfamily: Cynipoidea
        • Family: Cynipidae

In general, cynipids are either gall-makers or inquilines in galls made by other species. About 1,360 species have been described, but it is estimated that 3,000–6,000 species actually exist. Gall-making cynipids (Cynipinae) are similar to true parasitoids in...

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References

  1. Abrahamson WG, Weis AE (1987) Nutritional ecology of arthropod gall makers. In: Slansky F Jr., Rodriguez JG (eds) Nutritional ecology of insects, mites, spiders, and related invertebrates. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 235–258Google Scholar
  2. Askew RR (1984) The biology of gall wasps. In: Ananthakrishnan TN (ed) Biology of gall insects. Edward Arnold, Baltimore, MD, pp 223–271Google Scholar
  3. Rohfritsch O (1992) Patterns in gall development. In: Shorthouse JD, Rohfritsch O (eds) Biology of insect-induced galls. Oxford, New York, pp 60–86Google Scholar
  4. Ronquist F (1999) Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Wiebes-Rijks AA, Shorthouse JD (1992) Ecological relationships of insects inhabiting cynipid galls. In: Shorthouse JD, Rohfritsch O (eds) Biology of insect-induced galls. Oxford, New York, pp 238–257Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eileen A. Buss
    • 1
  1. 1.University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA