Odds ratio (OR); Cross-product ratio
The odds ratio is a measure of association, in which a value of “1.0” means that there is no relationship between variables. The value of an odds ratio can be less than or greater than 1.0. The magnitude of any relationship is measured by the difference (in either direction) from 1.0. An odds ratio less than 1.0 indicates an inverse or negative association. An odds ratio greater than 1.0 indicates a positive correlation.