Quinine (Quinora®, Quinerva®, QM-260®)
Quinine, which is the oldest anti-malaria drug, is an alkaloid of the bark of the South American cinchona tree. Its effect results from the impairment of metabolic processes in plasmodia. Quinine is used for the treatment of infections with Plasmodium falciparum , in complicated cases it is combined with doxycycline or clindamycin. Treatment is performed for 7 days and can also be carried out throughout pregnancy. Side effects involve the central nervous system (tinnitus, visual defects, headache, cerebral seizures) or the gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting). In cases of long-term and high-dosage therapy, a summation of side effects can occur, which is called ‘cinchonism’.