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AFM Imaging in Physiological Environment: From Biomolecules to Living Cells

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Considerations in Interfacial Self-Assembly
  • T. Cohen-Bouhacina
  • A. MaAli

1 General Introduction

While the search for the perfect instrument is still ongoing, in 1982 this effort was significantly enhanced by the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) [1, 2] allowing the direct spatial imaging of conductive surfaces with atomic resolution under a wide range of environments. This invention was at the origin of the creation of much of other instruments in the local probe field. The second instrument of this long series is the atomic force microscope (AFM) which was invented in 1985 by Binnig and coworkers [3]. This apparatus was initially conceived as a very sensitive profilometer and operates by placing a sharp tip in such close proximity to a sample surface, so that their interaction can be measured. Thus the AFM can apply to any type of surface (conducting or insulating). The design of the AFM is of a great simplicity; moreover, the representation of this machine by a spring to which is attached at an end a small sphere of nanometric size...

Keywords

Atomic Force Microscope Atomic Force Microscope Probe Height Image Force Spectroscopy Plasmic Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all the authors whose work enabled us to write this chapter. In the same manner, we would like to present our excuses to all those who contributed in this field and whose work could not be quoted.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Cohen-Bouhacina
    • 1
  • A. MaAli
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Bordeaux1 Passac CedexFrance
  2. 2.University of Bordeaux1 Passac CedexFrance

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