Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics

  • M. S. Sriram
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4425-0_8683

After Bhāskara II (b. AD 1114), the most significant contributions to mathematics and astronomy in India came from Kerala, in the southwestern part of India. Kerala has had a continuous tradition of astronomy and mathematics from much earlier times. Sarma has listed nearly 750 independent works on astronomy, astrology and mathematics including minor works by 110 authors in the Kerala tradition.

Vararuci (date unconfirmed), who is credited with the authorship of 248 Candravākyas (sentences for computation of the moon's longitude) by the manuscript tradition, is considered to be the father figure in the astronomical tradition of Kerala. Āryabhaṭīya (ca. AD 499) of Āryabhaṭa which set the tone for all further work on mathematical astronomy in India, appears to have become popular in Kerala soon after its composition. In fact, out of the 20 or so available commentaries on Āryabhaṭīya, as many as 12 are from Kerala. The astronomical parameters in Āryabhaṭīyawere revised by a group of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

Primary Sources

  1. Āryabhaṭīya of Āryabhaṭa. Trans. Ed. K. S. Shukla and K. V. Sarma. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. Āryabhaṭīya with the Bhāsya of Nīlakaṇṭha Somasutvan, Part I Gaṇita pāda. Trans. Ed. K. Sāmbaśiva Śāstri. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, 101. Trivandrum: Government of Travancore, 1930.Google Scholar
  3. Āryabhaṭīya with the Bhāsya of Nīlakantha Somasutvan, Part II Kalakriyāpāda. Trans. Ed. K. Sāmbaśiva Śāstri. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, 110. Trivandrum: Government of Travancore, 1931.Google Scholar
  4. Āryabhaṭīya with the Bhāsya of Nīlakantha Somasutvan, Part III Golapāda. Trans. Ed. S. K. Pillai. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, 185. Trivandrum: University of Kerala, 1957.Google Scholar
  5. Āryabhaṭīya with the Commentary Bhatadīpikā of Paramādiśvara. Trans. Ed. H. Kern, Leiden. 2nd edn. Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers, 1990.Google Scholar
  6. Candracchāyāgaṇita of Nīlakantha Somāyāji. Trans. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Drggaṇita of Parameśvara. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1963.Google Scholar
  8. Gaṇita yuktayah. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1977.Google Scholar
  9. Gaṇita‐Yuktibhāṣā. Trans. Ed. K. V. Sarma. and with explanatory notes by K. Ramasubramanian, M. D. Srinivas, and M. S. Sriram. 3 vols. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 2005 (in press).Google Scholar
  10. Goladīpikā of Parameśvara, with Autocommentary. Trans. K. V. Sarma. Madras: Adyar Library and Research Centre, 1957.Google Scholar
  11. Golasāra of Nīlkantha Somayāji. Trans. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1970.Google Scholar
  12. Grahacārambandhana, a Parahita Manual by Haridatta. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Madras: Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, 1954.Google Scholar
  13. Grahanamandana of Parameśvara. Trans. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1965.Google Scholar
  14. Grahananyāyadīpikā of Parameśvara. Trans. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1966.Google Scholar
  15. Jyotirmīmāmsa of Nīlkantha Somayāji. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1977.Google Scholar
  16. Karanapaddhati of Putumana Somayāji. Ed. P. K. Koru. Cherp, Kerala: Astro Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  17. Laghubhāskarīya with the Commentary by Śaṅkaranārāyana. Ed. P. K. Narayana Pillai. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, 162, 1949.Google Scholar
  18. Līlāvatī of Bhāskarācārya with Kriyākramakarī of Śaṅkara and Nārāyana. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshwaranand Institute, 1975.Google Scholar
  19. Mahabhāskarīyam with Govindaswamin's Vyākhyā and Siddhāntadīpikā of Parameśvara. Ed. T. S. Kuppanna Sastri. Madras Government Oriental Series, No. 130, 1957.Google Scholar
  20. Raśigolasphutāniti According to Acyuta. Trans. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshwaranand Institute, 1977.Google Scholar
  21. Sarma, K. V. A Bibliography of Kerala and Kerala‐based astronomy and astrology, Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1972.Google Scholar
  22. Siddhāntadarpana. Trans. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshwaranand Institute, 1977.Google Scholar
  23. Siddhāntaśiromani of Bhāskaracārya. Ed. Muralidhara Chaturvedi. Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 1981.Google Scholar
  24. Sphutacandrāpti of Mādhava. Trans. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshwaranand Institute, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Sphutanirṇayatantra of Acyuta. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshwaranand Institute, 1974.Google Scholar
  26. Tantrasaṅgraha of Nīlakantha Somasutvan with the Commentary Laghuvivritti of Vārier. Ed. S. K. Pillai. Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, 188, 1958.Google Scholar
  27. Tantrasaṅgraha of Nīlakantha with the Commentaries Yuktidīpikā and Laghuvivritti of Śaṅkara. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshwaranand Institute, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. Vakyākarana. Ed. T. S. Kuppanna Śastri and K. V. Sarma. Madras: Kuppuswamy Sastri Research Institute, 1964.Google Scholar
  29. Venvāroha of Mādhava of Sangamagrama. Ed. K. V. Sarma. Tripunitira: Sanskrit College, 1956.Google Scholar
  30. Yuktibhāṣā (Part I). Ed. H. H. Ramavarma (Maru) Tampuran and A. R. Akhileswara Iyer (with notes in Malayalam). Thrissur: Mangalodayam Ltd, 1948.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Bag, A. K. Mathematics in Ancient and Medieval India. Delhi: Chowkhambha Orientalia, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. Balachandra Rao, S. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy, Some Landmarks. Rev. 3rd ed. Bangalore: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 2004.Google Scholar
  3. Hayashi, T., T. Kusuba and M. Yano. The Correction of the Madhava Series for the Circumference of the Circle. Centaurus 33 (1990): 149–74.Google Scholar
  4. Joseph, G. G. The Crest of the Peacock: The Non‐European Roots of Mathematics. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  5. Katz, V. J. Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India. Mathematics Magazine 68 (1995): 163–74.Google Scholar
  6. Paramesvaran, S. The Golden Age of Indian Mathematics. Kerala: Swadeshi Science Movement, 1998.Google Scholar
  7. Mukunda Marar, K. Proof of Gregory's Series. Teacher's Magazine 15 (1940): 28–34.Google Scholar
  8. Rajagopal, C. T and M. S. Rangachari. On Medieval Kerala Mathematics. Archives for History of Exact Sciences 35.2 (1986): 91–9.Google Scholar
  9. Ramasubramanian, K., M. D. Srinivas and M. S. Sriram. Modification of the Earlier Indian Planetary Theory by the Kerala Astronomers (ca. 1500 AD) and the Implied Heliocentric Picture of Planetary Motion. Current Science 66 (1994): 784–90.Google Scholar
  10. Sarasvati Amma, T. A. Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1999 (revised edition).Google Scholar
  11. Sarma, K. V. A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Institute, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. Shukla, K. S. Acarya Jayadeva, the Mathematician. Gaṇita. Vol. 5. Lucknow: Bharat Gaṇita Parishad, 1954.Google Scholar
  13. Srinivas, M. D. Indian Approach to Science: The Case of Jyotihsastra. P.P.S.T. Bulletin 19 and 20: 2000.Google Scholar
  14. Sriram, K. Ramasubramanian and M. D. Srinivas eds. 500 Years of Tantrasaṅgraha: A Landmark in the History of Astronomy. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 2002.Google Scholar
  15. Subbarayappa, B. V and K. V. Sarma. Indian Astronomy: A Source‐Book. Bombay: Nehru Centre, 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Sriram

There are no affiliations available