Environment and Nature in Hebrew Thought
It is perhaps inappropriate to include a section on Hebrew thought in an encyclopedia on non‐Western cultures. When the Hebrew Bible was adopted in translation as the Christian Old Testament, it became one of the intellectual cornerstones of western civilization. The two principal divisions of Jewish culture and ethnicity, central and eastern European (Ashkenazi) and Mediterranean and Near Eastern (Sephardi), have extensive European roots. Nevertheless Christianity and Judaism diverged in critical ways over the interpretation of their shared scriptures.
The Hebrew Bible and Jewish Law
The essential core of Jewish belief is the first five books of the Bible, notably the set of 613 commandments (mitzvoth) handed down to Moses on Mount Sinai. The rabbinical interpretations of Mosaic law (halakhah) and explanations of biblical narratives codified principally in Babylon and Palestine during the first centuries of the Common Era as the Talmud (together with some subsequent commentaries on...
- Alon, Tal. Pollution in a Promised Land: An Environmental History of Israel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.Google Scholar
- Cohen, Shaul Ephraim. The Politics of Planting: Israel–Palestinian Competition for Control of Land in the Jerusalem Periphery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.Google Scholar
- Feliks, Yehuda. Nature & Man in the Bible: Chapters in Biblical Ecology. London: Soncino Press, 1981.Google Scholar
- Gerstenfeld, Manfred. Judaism, Environmentalism, and the Environment: Mapping and Analysis. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1998.Google Scholar
- Hareuveni, Nogah. Tree and Shrub in Our Biblical Heritage. Kiryat Ono, Israel: Neot Kedumim Ltd, 1984.Google Scholar
- Hiebert, Theodore. The Yahwist's Landscape: Nature and Religion in Early Israel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
- Hüttermann, Aloys. The Ecological Message of the Torah: Knowledge, Concepts, and Laws Which Made Survival in a Land of “Milk and Honey” Possible. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999.Google Scholar
- Isaacs, Ronald H. The Jewish Sourcebook on the Environment and Ecology. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, 1998.Google Scholar
- ‐‐‐. Animals in Jewish Thought and Tradition. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, 2000.Google Scholar
- Kay, Jeanne. Human Dominion over Nature in the Hebrew Bible. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 79.2 (1989): 224–32.Google Scholar
- Lees, Susan H. The Political Ecology of the Water Crisis in Israel. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1998.Google Scholar
- Roth, Cecil and Geoffrey Wigoder, ed. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 17 vols. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1971. (1997 Edition, Available in CD‐Rom and Online in Many Libraries)Google Scholar
- The Melton Journal: Issues and Themes in Jewish Education. No. 24, 1991 and No. 25, 1992.Google Scholar
- Tirosh‐ Samuelson, Hava, ed. Judaism and Ecology: Created World and Revealed Word. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
- Tucker, Gene M. Rain on a Land Where No one Lives: The Hebrew Bible on the Environment. Journal of Biblical Literature 16 (1997): 3–17.Google Scholar
- Waskow, Arthur, ed. Torah of the Earth: Exploring 4000 Years of Ecology in Jewish Thought. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publications, 2000.Google Scholar
- Yaffe, Martin D., ed. Judaism and Environmental Ethics: A Reader. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2001.Google Scholar
- American Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel http://www.aspni.org/.
- Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life http://www.coejl.org.
- The Forum on Religion and Ecology, Harvard University http://www.environment.harvard.edu/religion/main.html.
- Israel Nature and Parks Protection Authority http://www.parks.org.il.
- Neot Kedumim Biblical Landscape Reserve http://www.neot‐kedumim.org.il.