Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

2009 Edition
| Editors: Vivien Gornitz


  • Harry J. Dowsett
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4411-3_88
Foraminifera are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that live in both the marine and fresh water environment. They range in size from 100 μm–15 cm in length. Foraminifera (often referred to as forams) are classified primarily by the composition and morphology of their tests (shells). Tests can be made of organic compounds, sand grains, and other particles cemented together (agglutinated), or secreted calcium carbonate (CaCO 3). Many groups are commonly made of a number of chambers, added during growth (Figure F2). The arrangement of these chambers and the position and shape of apertures are important for taxonomic classification.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., and Van Couvering, J.A., 1985. Neogene geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In Snelling, N.J. (ed.), The Chronology of the Geological Record. London: Geological Society of London, Memoir 10, pp.211–260.Google Scholar
  2. Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., Swisher, C.C., and Aubry, M.-P., 1995. A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., Aubry, M.-P., and Hardenbol, J. (eds.), Geochronology, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation. Tulsa: Society for Sedimentary Geology, Special Publication 54, pp.129–212.Google Scholar
  3. Brady, H.B., 1884. Report on the foraminifera dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873–1876. Report of the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, 1873–1876, Zoology, 9, 1–814.Google Scholar
  4. CLIMAP, 1981. Seasonal reconstruction of the Earth’s surface at the last glacial maximum. Geological Society of America Map and Chart Series MC-36, 1–18.Google Scholar
  5. Dowsett, H.J., 1989. Application of the graphic correlation method to Pliocene marine sequences. Mar. Micropaleontol., 35, 279–292.Google Scholar
  6. Dowsett, H.J., Barron, J.A., Poore, R.Z., Thompson, R.S., Cronin, T.M., Ishman, S.E., and Willard, D.A., 1999. Middle Pliocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction: PRISM2. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 99–535.Google Scholar
  7. Ericson, D.B., and Wollin, G., 1956. Correlation of six cores from the equatorial Atlantic and the Caribbean. Deep Sea Res., 3, 104–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haynes, J.R. 1981. Foraminifera. New York: Wiley, 433pp.Google Scholar
  9. Imbrie, J., and Kipp, N.G., 1971. A new micropaleontological method for quantitative paleoclimatology: Applications to a late Pleistocene Caribbean core. In Turekian, K.K. (ed.), The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, pp.71–181.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry J. Dowsett

There are no affiliations available