Eutrophication in Fresh Waters: An International Review
Definition and Introduction
Aquatic eutrophication: from the Greek “eutrophia”, meaning “well nourish”.
The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, causing an accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms and the quality of the water concerned.
Eutrophication is one of the most widespread environmental problems of inland waters, and is their unnatural enrichment with two plant nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen. Such changes can destroy wildlife habitats and interfere with a range of water uses from recreation to the production of drinking water.
Origin of the concept of eutrophication in fresh waters
The idea of eutrophication...
- Chave, P., 2002. The EU Water Framework Directive. London: IWA.Google Scholar
- Council of the European Communities, 1991. Directive concerning urban wastewater treatment (91/271/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities, L135, 40–52.Google Scholar
- Foundation for Water Research (FWR), 2000. Review of current knowledge: eutrophication of freshwaters.Google Scholar
- Hall, T., 2006. Preventing Algal Problems in Water Supply. WRc, Swindon.Google Scholar
- Hutchinson, G. E., 1973. Eutrophication. The scientific background of a contemporary problem. American Scientist, 61, 269–279.Google Scholar
- Lund, J. W. G., 1969. Phytoplankton. In Rohlich, G. A. (ed.), Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives. Washington, DC: US National Academy of Sciences, pp. 306–330.Google Scholar
- National Eutrophication Management Program (NEMP). http://www.rivers.gov.au/research/nemp/index.htm
- Naumann, E., 1919. Några synpunkter angående limnoplanktons ökologi med särskild hänsyn till fytoplankton. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 13, 129–163.Google Scholar
- OECD, 1982. Eutrophication of Waters, Monitoring, Assessment and Control. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar
- Rodhe, W., 1969. Crystallization of Eutrophication Concepts in Northern Europe. Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, pp. 50–64.Google Scholar
- Taylor, A. R. D., 1993. Floating water weeds in East Africa, with a case study in northern Lake Victoria. In Greathead, A., de Groot, P. (eds.), Control of Africa’s Water Weeds. Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) Series No. 93. AGR – 18, Proceedings 295.Google Scholar
- Thiennemann, A., 1918. Untersuchungen über die Beziehungen zwischen dem Sauerstoffgehalt des Wassers und der Zusammensetzung der Fauna in norddeutschen Seen. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 12, 1–65.Google Scholar
- United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). Planning and management of lakes and reservoirs, Vol. 3, Water quality – The impact of eutrophication. http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/short_series/lakereservoirs-3/2.asp