Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs

2012 Edition
| Editors: Lars Bengtsson, Reginald W. Herschy, Rhodes W. Fairbridge

English Lakes

  • Reginald W. Herschy
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4410-6_76

Introduction

The Lake District of England is not only famous for being one of England’s prime tourist resorts but also its lakes being the subject of significant scientific study over the past 100 years. A considerable input to this scientific study has been undertaken since 1931 by the Freshwater Biological Association (FBA) and the Institute of Freshwater Ecology (IFE).

There are some 88 lakes and tarns (small lakes) in the group of lakes in the district of north east England.

It is interesting to note that only one of these lakes is known as a “lake” the one being Bassenthwaite Lake, all the others being tarns as in Blelham Tarn, or “mere” as in Windermere or with”water” in the name as in Ullswater.

Geology

The geology of the Lake District is complex with Skiddaw Slsate and Borrowdale Volcanic rocks formed some 500 million years ago. A system of radiating U shaped valleys formed by glaciation some 15,000 years ago subsequently filled with the lakes we see today. On three sides there...

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Bibliography

  1. Fryer, G., 1991. A Natural History of Lakes, Tarns and Streams in the English Lake District. Ambleside: Freshwater Biological Association.Google Scholar
  2. George, D. G., 1992. General Assessment of Long-Term Changes on the Larger Lakes of The English Lake District. Ambleside: Freshwater Biological Association.Google Scholar
  3. George, D. G., and Charlton, F. L., 1996. Using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Image Monitoring of the Water Quality in the Lakes of the English Lake District. Ambleside: Environment Agency.Google Scholar
  4. George, D. G., and Hurley, M. A., 2004. Influence of Sampling Frequency on the Detection of Long-Term Change in Three Lakes in the English Lake District. Ambleside: Freshwater Biological Association.Google Scholar
  5. George, D. G., Talling, J. F., and Rigg, E., 2001. Factors Influencing the Temporal Coherence of Five Lakes in the English Lake District. Ambleside: Freshwater Biological Association.Google Scholar
  6. George, D. G., Maberly, S. C., and Hewitt, D. P., 2004. The Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the Physical Characteristics of Four Lakes in the English Lake District. Ambleside: Freshwater Biological Association.Google Scholar
  7. Kadiri, M. O., and Reynolds, R. S., 1993. Long-term monitoring of the condition of lakes: the example of the English Lake District. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 129, 157–178.Google Scholar
  8. Maberly, S. (ed.), 2006. Lakes of the English Lake District, Government Environment Agency, London.Google Scholar
  9. Porter, J., Morris, S. A., and Pickup, R. W., 2004. Effect of Trophic Status on the Culturability and Activity of Bacteria from a Range of Lakes in the English Lake District. Ambleside: Freshwater Biological Association.Google Scholar
  10. Spezzano, P., Hilton, G., Lishman, S. P., and Carrick, T. R., 1993. The variability of Chernobyl retention in the water column of lakes, two years and four years after deposition in the English Lake District. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 19, 219–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Talling, J. F. (ed.), Atkinson, K. M., Elliott, J. M., George, D. G., Hall, G. H., Hawworth, E. Y., Heaney, S. I., Jones J. G., Maberly, S. C., Mills, C. A., and Reynolds, C. S. 1999. Some English Lakes as Diverse and Active Ecosystems: A Factual Summary and Source Book. Ambleside: Freshwater Biological Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hydrology ConsultantReadingUK