Encyclopedia of Geoarchaeology

2017 Edition
| Editors: Allan S. Gilbert

Submerged Continental Shelf Prehistory

  • Nic C. FlemmingEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4409-0_121


Over 3,000 submerged prehistoric occupation sites on the continental shelf are known worldwide, varying in depth from the nearshore to about 100 m and ranging in age from 5,000 years to 0.5–1.0 million years. Sites have been found off the coast of every continent except Antarctica. These findings are consistent with the climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene glacial cycles, the repeated lowering of global sea levels to about –130 m, and the extension of adjacent continental climate, vegetation, freshwater drainage, and fauna onto the exposed continental shelf land surfaces. The inclusion of the prehistoric populations and cultures of the continental shelf into world prehistory has a substantial impact on our understanding of the development of coastal resources, population density and distribution, movements of populations, specialized coastal technologies, diet, and early seafaring. Although submerged sites and submerged Pleistocene terrestrial landscapes have been...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Allen, J., Golson, J., and Jones, R. (eds.), 1977. Sunda and Sahul: Prehistoric Studies in Southeast Asia, Melanesia and Australia. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, S. H., 1980. Tybrind Vig. Foreløbig meddelelse om en undersøisk stenalderboplads ved Lillebælt [Tybrind Vig. A preliminary report on a submerged Ertebølle settlement on the Little Belt]. Antikvariske Studies, 4, 7–22 (in Danish).Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, S. H., 1985. Tybrind Vig. A preliminary report on a submerged Ertebølle settlement on the west coast of Fyn. Journal of Danish Archaeology, 4(1), 52–69.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, S. H. (ed.), 2013. Tybrind Vig: Submerged Mesolithic Settlements in Denmark. Hojbjerg: Moesgård Museum, Jutland Archaeological Society, and Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, A., Barrett, J. H., and Boyle, K. V. (eds.), 2010. The Global Origins and Development of Seafaring. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, G. N., and Flemming, N. C., 2008. Archaeology of the continental shelf: marine resources, submerged landscapes and underwater archaeology. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(23–24), 2153–2165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey, G. N., and King, G. C. P., 2011. Dynamic landscapes and human dispersal patterns: tectonics, coastlines, and the reconstruction of human habitats. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(11–12), 1533–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, G., Devès, M., Inglis, R. H., Meredith-Williams, M. G., Momber, G. L., Sinclair, A., Sakellariou, D., Rousakis, G., Al Ghamdi, S., and Alsharekh, A., 2015. Blue Arabia: palaeolithic and underwater survey in SW Saudi Arabia and the role of coasts in Pleistocene dispersal. Quaternary International, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.01.002.Google Scholar
  9. Ballard, R. D. (ed.), 2008. Archaeological Oceanography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bednarik, R. G., 2003. Seafaring in the Pleistocene. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 13(1), 41–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Belknap, D. F., and Kraft, J. C., 1981. Preservation potential of transgressive coastal lithosomes on the U.S. Atlantic shelf. Marine Geology, 42(1–4), 429–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belknap, D. F., and Kraft, J. C., 1985. Influence of antecedent geology on stratigraphic preservation potential and evolution of Delaware’s barrier systems. Marine Geology, 63(1–4), 235–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benjamin, J., 2010. Submerged prehistoric landscapes and underwater site discovery: reevaluating the ‘Danish Model’ for international practice. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 5(2), 253–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benjamin, J., Bonsall, C., Pickard, C., and Fischer, A. (eds.), 2011. Submerged Prehistory. Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  15. Blanc, A. C., 1940. Industrie musteriane e paleolitiche superiori nelle dune fossile e nelle grotte litorannee del Capo Palinuro. Roma: G. Bardi. Rendiconti della Classe di Scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, della Reale Accademia d’Italia, Ser.VII, Vol. 1.Google Scholar
  16. Boldurian, A. T., 2006. Clovis fluted point from coastal waters in southern New Jersey. North American Archaeologist, 27(3), 245–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boule, M., 1906. Géologie et paléontologie. In de Villeneuve, L., Boule, M., Verneau, R., and Cartailhac, E. (eds.), Les Grottes de Grimaldi. Monaco: Imprimerie de Monaco, Vol. 1, pp. 73–156. Fasc. 2.Google Scholar
  18. Bowens, A., and NAS (Nautical Archaeological Society), 2008. Archaeology Underwater. NAS Guide to Principles and Practice, 2nd edn. Oxford: Wiley/Blackwell.Google Scholar
  19. Bruun, P., 1962. Sea-level rise as a cause of shore erosion. Journal of Waterways and Harbors Division (American Society of Civil Engineers), 88(1), 117–132.Google Scholar
  20. Bulbeck, D., 2007. Where river meets sea: a parsimonious model for Homo sapiens colonization if the Indian Ocean Rim and Sahul. Current Anthropology, 48(2), 315–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burkitt, M. C., 1932. A Maglemose harpoon dredged up recently from the North Sea. Man, 32, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buynevich, I. V., Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A. S., and Martin, R. E. (eds.), 2011. Geology and Geoarchaeology of the Black Sea Region: Beyond the Flood Hypothesis. Boulder: Geological Society of America. GSA Special Paper 473.Google Scholar
  23. Carabias Amor, D., Cartajena, I., Simonetti, R., López, P., Morales, C., and Ortega, C., 2014. Submerged paleolandscapes: site GNL Quintero 1 (GNLQ1) and the first evidence from the Pacific coast of South America. In Evans, A. M., Flatman, J. C., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer, pp. 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carrión, J. S., Finlayson, C., Fernández, S., Finlayson, G., Allué, E., López-Sáez, J. A., López-García, P., Gil-Romera, G., Bailey, G., and González-Sampériz, P., 2008. A coastal reservoir of biodiversity for upper Pleistocene human populations: palaeoecological investigations in Gorham’s Cave (Gibraltar) in the context of the Iberian Peninsula. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(23–24), 2118–2135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter, R. W. G., 1993. Coastal Environments: An Introduction to the Physical, Ecological and Cultural Systems of Coastlines. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Chang, C.-H., Kaifu, Y., Takai, M., Kono, R. T., Grün, R., Matsu’ura, S., Kinsley, L., and Lin, L.-K., 2015. The first archaic Homo from Taiwan. Nature Communications, 6, 6037, doi:10. 1038/ncomms7037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chiocci, F. L., and Chivas, A. R. (eds.), 2014. Continental Shelves of the World: Their Evolution During the Last Glacio-Eustatic Cycle. London: The Geological Society. Geological Society, London, Memoir 41.Google Scholar
  28. Clausen, C. J., Cohen, A. D., Emiliani, C., Holman, J. A., and Stipp, J. J., 1979. Little salt spring, Florida: a unique underwater site. Science, 203(4381), 609–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cliquet, D., Coutard, S., Clet, M., Allix, J., Tessier, B., Lelong, F., Baltzer, A., Mear, Y., Poizot, E., Auguste, P., Alix, P., Olive, J., and Guesnon, J., 2011. The middle palaeolithic underwater site of La Mondrée, Normandy, France. In Benjamin, J., Bonsall, C., Pickard, C., and Fischer, A. (eds.), Submerged Prehistory. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 111–128.Google Scholar
  30. Clottes, J., and Courtin, J., 1996. The Cave Beneath the Sea: Paleolithic Images at Cosquer. New York: Harry N. Abrams.Google Scholar
  31. Clottes, J., Courtin, J., and Vanrell, L., 2005. Cosquer redécouvert. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  32. Cockerell, W. A., and Murphy, L., 1978. Inundated terrestrial sites: 8 SL 17: methodological approaches to a dual component marine site on the Florida Atlantic coast. In Barto Arnold, J., III (ed.), Beneath the Waters of Time: Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Underwater Archaeology. Austin: Texas Antiquities Committee. Texas Antiquities Committee Publication 6, pp. 175–182.Google Scholar
  33. Cohen, K. M., Gibbard, P. L., and Weerts, H. J. T., 2014. North Sea palaeogeographical reconstructions for the last 1 Ma. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 93(1–2), 7–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Collina-Girard, J., 2005. La Grotte Cosquer, témoin émergé d’un monde englouti. In Clottes, J., Courtin, J., and Vanrell, L. (eds.), Cosquer redécouvert. Paris: Seuil, pp. 52–55.Google Scholar
  35. Cooper, J. A. G., and Pilkey, O. H., 2004. Sea-level rise and shoreline retreat: time to abandon the Bruun rule. Global and Planetary Change, 43(3–4), 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Crock, J. G., Petersen, J. B., and Andersen, R. M., 1993. Scalloping for artifacts: a biface and plummet from eastern Blue Hill Bay, Maine. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 21, 179–192.Google Scholar
  37. Davidson-Arnott, R., 2010. Introduction to Coastal Processes and Geomorphology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Delgado, J. P., 1997. Encyclopedia of Underwater and Maritime Archaeology. London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Dellino-Musgrave, V. E., 2012. Marine Archaeology: A Handbook. Bootham: Council for British Archaeology.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dixon, J. E., and Monteleone, K., 2014. Gateway to the Americas: underwater archaeological survey in Beringia and the North Pacific. In Evans, A. M., Flatman, J. C., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer, pp. 95–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Emery, K. O., and Edwards, R. L., 1966. Archaeological potential of the Atlantic continental shelf. American Antiquity, 31(5), 733–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Erlandson, J. M., and Braje, T. J., 2015. Coasting out of Africa: the potential of mangrove forests and marine habitats to facilitate human coastal expansion via the southern dispersal route. Quaternary International, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.03.046.Google Scholar
  43. Erlandson, J. M., Braje, T. J., Gill, K. M., and Graham, M. H., 2015. Ecology of the Kelp Highway: did marine resources facilitate human dispersal from Northeast Asia to the Americas? Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, doi:10.1080/15564894.2014.1001923.Google Scholar
  44. Evans, A. M., Flatman, J. C., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), 2014. Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  45. Faught, M. K., 2004. The underwater archaeology of paleolandscapes, Apalachee Bay, Florida. American Antiquity, 69(2), 275–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Faught, M. K., 2014. Remote sensing, target identification and testing for submerged prehistoric sites in Florida: process and protocol in underwater CRM projects. In Evans, A. M., Flatman, J. C., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer, pp. 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Faught, M. K., and Flemming, N. C., 2008. Submerged prehistoric sites: ‘Needles in haystacks’ for CRMs and industry. Sea Technology, 49(10), 37–38. 40–42.Google Scholar
  48. Faught, M. K., and Gusick, A. E., 2011. Submerged prehistory in the Americas. In Benjamin, J., Bonsall, C., Pickard, C., and Fischer, A. (eds.), Submerged Prehistory. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 145–157.Google Scholar
  49. Faure, H., Walter, R. C., and Grant, D. R., 2002. The coastal oasis: ice age springs on emerged continental shelves. Global and Planetary Change, 33(1–2), 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fedje, D. W., and Josenhans, H., 2000. Drowned forests and archaeology on the continental shelf of British Columbia, Canada. Geology, 28(2), 99–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fischer, A., 1993. Stenalderbopladser på bunden af Smålandsfarvandet: En teori afprøvet ved dykkerbesigtigelse [Stone Age Settlements in the Småland Bight: A Theory Tested by Diving]. København: Miljøministeriet Skov- og Naturstyrelsen.Google Scholar
  52. Fischer, A. (ed.), 1995. Man and Sea in the Mesolithic: Coastal Settlement Above and Below Present Sea Level. Proceedings of the International Symposium, Kalundborg, Denmark 1993. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Oxbow Monographs 53.Google Scholar
  53. Fischer, A., 2002. Food for feasting? An evaluation of explanations of the neolithisation of Denmark and southern Sweden. In Fischer, A., and Kristiansen, K. (eds.), The Neolithisation of Denmark—150 years of Debate. Sheffield: J.R. Collis. Sheffield Archaeological Monographs 12, pp. 343–393.Google Scholar
  54. Fladmark, K. R., 1975. Paleoecological Model for Northwest Coast Prehistory. Ottawa: Archaeological Survey of Canada. National Museum of Man Mercury Series. Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 43.Google Scholar
  55. Flemming, N. C., 1968. Derivation of Pleistocene marine chronology from the morphometry of erosion profiles. Journal of Geology, 76(3), 280–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Flemming, N. C. (ed.), 2004a. Submarine Prehistoric Archaeology of the North Sea: Research Priorities and Collaboration with Industry. York: Council for British Archaeology. Research Report 141.Google Scholar
  57. Flemming, N. C., 2004b. The scope of strategic environmental assessment of North Sea area SEA5 in regard to prehistoric archaeological remains. Department of Trade and Industry, Consultation Document, Technical Report. http://www.offshore-sea.org.uk/consultations/SEA_5/SEA5_TR_Archaeology_NCF.pdf.
  58. Flemming, N. C., Bailey, G. N., and Sakellariou, D., 2012. Migration: value of submerged early human sites. Nature, 486(7401), 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Flemming, N. C., Cağatay, M. N., Chiocci, F. L., Galanidou, N., Jöns, H., Lericolais, G., Missiaen, T., Moore, F., Rosentau, A., Sakellariou, D., Skar, B., Stevenson, A., and Weerts, H., 2014. Land Beneath the Waves: Submerged Landscapes and Sea Level Change. A Joint Geoscience-Humanities Strategy for European Continental Shelf Prehistoric Research. Ostend: European Marine Board. European Marine Board Position Paper 21.Google Scholar
  60. Forster, P., 2004. Ice ages and the mitochondrial DNA chronology of human dispersals: a review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 358(1442), 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fu, Q., Li, H., Moorjani, P., Jay, F., Slepchenko, S. M., Bondarev, A. A., Johnson, P. L., Aximu-Petri, A., Prüfer, K., de Filippo, C., Meyer, M., Zwyns, N., Salazar-García, D. C., Kuzmin, Y. V., Keates, S. G., Kosintsev, P. A., Razhev, D. I., Richards, M. P., Peristov, N. V., Lachmann, M., Douka, K., Higham, T. F., Slatkin, M., Hublin, J. J., Reich, D., Kelso, J., Viola, T. B., and Pääbo, S., 2014. Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia. Nature, 514(7523), 445–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gaffney, V. L., Thomson, K., and Fitch, S. (eds.), 2007. Mapping Doggerland: The Mesolithic Landscapes of the Southern North Sea. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  63. Gagliano, S. M., Pearson, C. E., Weinstein, R. A., Wiseman, D. E., and McClendon, C. M., 1982. Sedimentary Studies of Prehistoric Archaeological Sites: Criteria for the Identification of Submerged Archaeological Sites of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf. Baton Rouge: Coastal Environments.Google Scholar
  64. Galili, E., Weinstein-Evron, M., Hershkovitz, I., Gopher, A., Kislev, M., Lernau, O., Kolska-Horwitz, L., and Lernau, H., 1993. Atlit-Yam: a prehistoric site on the sea floor off the Israeli coast. Journal of Field Archaeology, 20(2), 133–157.Google Scholar
  65. Galili, E., Lernau, O., and Zohar, I., 2004. Fishing and coastal adaptations at ‘Atlit-Yam—a submerged PPNC fishing village off the Carmel coast, Israel. Atiqot, 48, 1–34.Google Scholar
  66. Green, J. N., 1990. Maritime Archaeology: A Technical Handbook. London: Academic Press Inc.Google Scholar
  67. Grøn, O., and Boldreel, L. O., 2014. Chirping for large-scale maritime archaeological survey: a strategy developed from a practical experience-based approach. Journal of Archaeology, 2014: Article ID 147390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/147390.
  68. Harding, A. F., Cadogan, G., and Howell, R., 1969. Pavlopetri, an underwater Bronze Age town in Laconia. Annual of the British School at Athens, 64, 113–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Harff, J., and Lüth, F. (eds.), 2011. SINCOS II. Sinking Coasts: Geosphere, Ecosphere and Anthroposphere of the Holocene Southern Baltic Sea. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. Bericht der Romisch-Germanischen Kommission 92.Google Scholar
  70. Harff, J., Lemke, W., Lampe, R., Lüth, F., Lübke, H., Meyer, M., Tauber, F., and Schmölcke, U., 2007a. The Baltic Sea coast—a model of interrelations among geosphere, climate, and anthroposphere. In Harff, J., Hay, W. W., and Tetzlaff, D. M. (eds.), Coastline Changes: Interrelation of Climate and Geological Processes. Boulder: Geological Society of America. GSA, Special Paper 426, pp. 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Harff, J., Hay, W. W., and Tetzlaff, D. M. (eds.), 2007b. Coastline Changes: Interrelation of Climate and Geological Processes. Boulder: Geological Society of America. GSA Special Paper 426.Google Scholar
  72. Harff, J., Bailey, G., and Lüth, F. (eds.), 2015. Geology and Archaeology: Submerged Landscapes of the Continental Shelf. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 411, http://doi.org/10.1144/SP411.10.
  73. Hayashida, K., 1993. The Archaeological Materials from the Takashima Seabed (Part II). Takashima Town Cultural Property Research Report. Educational Committee of Takashima Town, Nagasaki Prefecture. (in Japanese, with short English summary).Google Scholar
  74. Henderson, J. C., Gallou, C., Flemming, N. C., and Spondylis, E., 2011. The Pavlopetri underwater archaeology project: investigating an ancient submerged town. In Benjamin, J., Bonsall, C., Pickard, C., and Fischer, A. (eds.), Submerged Prehistory. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 207–218.Google Scholar
  75. Henderson, J., Pizarro, O., Johnson-Roberson, M., and Mahon, I., 2013. Mapping submerged archaeological sites using stereo-vision photogrammetry. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 42(2), 243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Henn, B. M., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., and Feldman, M. W., 2012. The great human expansion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(44), 17758–17764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hill, C., Soares, P., Mormina, M., Macaulay, V., Clarke, D., Blumbach, P. B., Vizuete-Forster, M., Forster, P., Bulbeck, D., Oppenheimer, S., and Richards, M., 2007. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(1), 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hublin, J.-J., Weston, D., Gunz, P., Richards, M., Roebroeks, W., Glimmerveen, J., and Anthonis, L., 2009. Out of the North Sea: the Zeeland ridges Neandertal. Journal of Human Evolution, 57(6), 777–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Jöns, H., 2011. Settlement development in the shadow of coastal changes—case studies from the Baltic rim. In Harff, J., Björck, S., and Hoth, P. (eds.), The Baltic Sea Basin. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 301–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jöns, H., Mennenga, M., Schaap, D., 2016. On behalf of the Splashcos-network. The SPLASHCOS Viewer: a European information system about submerged prehistoric sites on the continental shelf. http://splashcos.maris2.nl.
  81. Joordens, J. C. A., d’Errico, F., Wesselingh, F. P., Munro, S., de Vos, J., Wallinga, J., Ankjærgaard, C., Reimann, T., Wijbrans, J. R., Kuiper, K. F., Mücher, H. J., Coqueugniot, H., Prié, V., Joosten, I., van Os, B., Schulp, A. S., Panuel, M., van der Haas, V., Lustenhouwer, W., Reijmer, J. J. G., and Roebroeks, W., 2015. Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving. Nature, 518(7538), 228–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Josenhans, H., Fedje, D., Pienitz, R., and Southon, J., 1997. Early humans and rapidly changing Holocene sea levels in the Queen Charlotte Islands-Hecate Strait, British Columbia, Canada. Science, 277(5322), 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kelley, J. T., Belknap, D. F., Kelley, A. R., and Claesson, S. H., 2013. A model for drowned terrestrial habitats with associated archeological remains in the northwestern Gulf of Maine, USA. Marine Geology, 338, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. King, G., and Bailey, G. N., 2006. Tectonics and human evolution. Antiquity, 80(308), 265–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Klein, R. G., 2009. The Human Career, 3rd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kraft, J. C., Belknap, D. F., and Kayan, I., 1983. Potentials of discovery of human occupation sites on the continental shelf and near shore coastal zone. In Masters, P. M., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), Quaternary Coastlines and Marine Archaeology: Towards the Prehistory of Land Bridges and Continental Shelves. London: Academic Press, pp. 87–120.Google Scholar
  87. Kuhn, S. L., Stiner, M. C., Güleç, E., Özer, I., Yılmaz, H., Baykara, I., Açıkkol, A., Goldberg, P., Martínez Molina, K., Ünay, E., and Suata-Alpaslan, F., 2009. The early upper Paleolithic occupations at Uçağızlı cave (Hatay, Turkey). Journal of Human Evolution, 56(2), 87–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lambeck, K., and Purcell, A., 2005. Sea-level change in the Mediterranean Sea since the LGM: model predictions for tectonically stable areas. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(18–19), 1969–1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lambeck, K., Rouby, H., Purcell, A., Sun, Y., and Sambridge, M., 2014. Sea level and global ice volumes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), 15296–15303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Long, D., Wickham-Jones, C. R., and Ruckley, N. A., 1986. A flint artefact from the northern North Sea. In Roe, D. A. (ed.), Studies in the Upper Palaeolithic of Britain and NorthWest Europe. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 296, pp. 55–62.Google Scholar
  91. Louwe Kooijmans, L. P., 1970–71. Mesolithic bone and antler implements from the North Sea and from the Netherlands. Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek, 20–21: 27–73.Google Scholar
  92. Lübke, H., Schmölcke, U., and Tauber, F., 2011. Mesolithic hunter-fishers in a changing world: a case study of submerged sites on the Jäckelberg, Wismar Bay, northeastern Germany. In Benjamin, J., Bonsall, C., Pickard, C., and Fischer, A. (eds.), Submerged Prehistory. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 21–37.Google Scholar
  93. Marino, G., Rohling, E. J., Rodriguez-Sanz, L., Grant, K. M., Heslop, D., Roberts, A. P., Stanford, J. D., and Yu, J., 2015. Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level. Nature, 522(7555), 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Masters, P. M., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), 1983. Quaternary Coastlines and Marine Archaeology: Towards the Prehistory of Land Bridges and Continental Shelves. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  95. Micallef, A., Foglini, F., Le Bas, T., Angeletti, L., Maselli, V., Pasuto, A., and Taviani, M., 2013. The submerged paleolandscape of the Maltese Islands: morphology, evolution and relation to quaternary environmental change. Marine Geology, 335, 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mol, D., de Vos, J., Bakker, R., van Giel, B., Glimmerveen, J., van der Plicht, H., and Post, K., 2008. Kleine encyclopedie van het leven in het Pleistoceen: Mammoeten, neushoorns en andere dieren van de Noordzeeboden. Diemen: Veen Magazines. De wetenschappelijke bibliotheek van natuurwetenschap en techniek 94 (in Dutch).Google Scholar
  97. Momber, G., 2006. Mesolithic occupation: 11 m below the waves. In Hafner, A., Niffler, U., and Ruoff, U. (eds.), Die neue Sicht: Unterwasserarchäologie und Geschichtsbild; Akten des 2. Internationalen Kongresses für Unterwasserarchäologie, Rüschlikon bei Zürich, 21.–24. Oktober 2004 [The New View: Underwater Archaeology and the Historic Picture]. Basel: Archäologie Schweiz. Antiqua 40, pp. 56–63.Google Scholar
  98. Momber, G. L., Bailey, G., and Moran, L., 2012. Identifying the archaeological potential of submerged landscapes. In Henderson, J. (ed.), Beyond Boundaries: Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Underwater Archaeology, 9th to the 12th July, 2008, London. Bonn: Habelt, pp. 257–268.Google Scholar
  99. Moree, J. M., and Sier, M. M. (eds.), 2014. Twintig meter diep! Mesolithicum in de Yangtzehaven-Massvlakte te Rotterdam: Landschapsontwikkeling en bewoning in het Vroeg Holoceen. Rotterdam: Bureau Oudheidkundig Onderzoek Rotterdam, With digital annexes. BOORapporten 523. in Dutch.Google Scholar
  100. Muckelroy, K., 1978. Maritime Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  101. North, F. J., 1957. Sunken Cities: Some Legends of the Coast and Lakes of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  102. Nutley, D., 2014. Inundated site studies in Australia. In Evans, A. M., Flatman, J. C., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer, pp. 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pedersen, L. D., Fischer, A., and Aaby, B., 1997. The Danish Storebælt since the Ice Age: Man, Sea and Forest. Copenhagen: A/S Storebælt Fixed Link in co-operation with Kalundborg Regional Museum, the National Forest and Nature Agency, and the National Museum of Denmark. Storebælt Publications.Google Scholar
  104. Peltier, W. R., and Fairbanks, R. G., 2006. Global glacial ice volume and Last Glacial Maximum duration from an extended Barbados sea level record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25(23–24), 3322–3337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pope, K. O., and Terrell, J. E., 2008. Environmental setting of human migrations in the circum-Pacific region. Journal of Biogeography, 35(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
  106. Reid, C., 1913. Submerged Forests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Rodríguez-Vidal, J., d’Errico, F., Giles Pacheco, F., Blasco, R., Rosell, J., Jennings, R. P., Queffelec, A., Finlayson, G., Fa, D. A., Gutiérrez López, J. M., Carrión, J. S., Negro, J. S., Finlayson, S., Cáceres, L. M., Bernal, M. A., Fernández Jiménez, S., and Finlayson, C., 2014. A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(37), 13301–13306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rohling, E. J., Grant, K., Bolshaw, M., Roberts, A. P., Siddall, M., Hemleben, C., and Kucera, M., 2009. Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely coupled over the past five glacial cycles. Nature Geoscience, 2, 500–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ruppé, R. J., 1978. Underwater site detection by use of a coring instrument. In Barto Arnold, J., III (ed.), Beneath the Waters of Time: Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Underwater Archaeology. Austin: Texas Antiquities Committee. Texas Antiquities Committee Publication 6, pp. 119–121.Google Scholar
  110. Ruppé, R. J., 1980. The archaeology of drowned terrestrial sites: a preliminary report. Bureau of Historical Sites and Properties Bulletin 6. Division of Archives, History, and Records Management, Department of State, Tallahassee, Florida, pp. 35–45.Google Scholar
  111. Ruppé, C., and Barstad, J. (eds.), 2002. International Handbook of Underwater Archaeology. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  112. Salter, E., Murphy, P., and Peeters, H., 2014. Researching, conserving, and managing submerged prehistory: national approaches and international collaboration. In Evans, A. M., Flatman, J. C., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer, pp. 151–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Scally, A., and Durbin, R., 2012. Revising the human mutation rate: implications for understanding human evolution. Nature Reviews Genetics, 13(10), 745–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Scuvée, F., and Verague, J., 1988. Le gisement sous-marin du Paléolithique moyen de l’anse de La Mondrée à Fermanville, Manche. Cherbourg: CEHP-Littus.Google Scholar
  115. Shennan, I., Long, A. J., and Horton, B. P. (eds.), 2015. Handbook of Sea-level Research. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  116. Skaarup, J., 1980. Undersoisk stenhalder. Tiddskriftet, 1, 3–8.Google Scholar
  117. Soares, P., Trejaut, J. A., Loo, J.-H., Hill, C., Mormina, M., Lee, C. L., Chen, Y. M., Hudjashov, G., Forster, P., Macaulay, V., Bulbeck, D., Oppenheimer, S., Lin, M., and Richards, M. B., 2008. Climate change and post-glacial human dispersals in Southeast Asia. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25(6), 1209–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Stanford, J. D., Hemingway, R., Rohling, E. J., Challenor, P. G., Medina-Elizalde, M., and Lester, A. J., 2011. Sea-level probability for the last deglaciation: a statistical analysis of far-field records. Global and Planetary Change, 79(3–4), 193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stanford, D., Lowery, D., Jodry, M., Bradley, B. A., Kay, M., Stafford, T. W., Jr., and Speakman, R. J., 2014. New evidence for a possible Paleolithic occupation of the eastern North American continental shelf at the Last Glacial Maximum. In Evans, A. M., Flatman, J. C., and Flemming, N. C. (eds.), Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review. New York: Springer, pp. 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stein, J. K., 2001. A review of site formation processes and their relevance to geoarchaeology. In Goldberg, P., Holliday, V. T., and Ferring, C. R. (eds.), Earth Sciences and Archaeology. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, pp. 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stright, M. J., 1990. Archaeological sites on the North American continental shelf. In Lasca, N. P., and Donahue, J. (eds.), Archaeological Geology of North America. Boulder: Geological Society of America. GSA Centennial Special volume 4, pp. 439–465.Google Scholar
  122. Stringer, C. B., Finlayson, J. C., Barton, R. N. E., Fernández-Jalvo, Y., Cáceres, I., Sabin, R. C., Rhodes, E. J., Currant, A. P., Rodríguez-Vidal, J., Giles-Pacheco, F., and Riquelme-Cantal, J. A., 2008. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(38), 14319–14324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tizzard, L., Bicket, A. R., Benjamin, J., and De Loecker, D., 2014. A Middle Palaeolithic site in the southern North Sea: investigating the archaeology and palaeogeography of Area 240. Journal of Quaternary Science, 29(7), 698–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. TRC Environmental Corporation, 2012. Inventory of archaeological site occurrence on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. BOEM 2012-008. New Orleans, Louisiana: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. www.data.boem.gov/PI/PDFImages/ESPIS/5/5196.pdf.
  125. Veevers, J. J., and van Andel, T. H., 1967. Morphology and Sediments of the Timor Sea. Canberra: Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics. Bulletin, Commonwealth of Australia, Dept. of National Development, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics 83.Google Scholar
  126. Weerts, H., Otte, A., Smit, B., Vos, P., Schiltmans, D., Waldus, W., and Borst, W., 2012. Finding the needle in the Haystack by using knowledge of mesolithic human adaptation in a drowning delta. In Bebermeier, W., Hebenstreit, R., Kaiser, E., and Krause, J. (eds.), Landscape Archaeology. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference Held in Berlin, 6th–8th June, 2012. Printed in eTopoi Special volume 3 (2012), pp. 17–24.Google Scholar
  127. Werz, B. E. J. S., and Flemming, N. C., 2001. Discovery in Table Bay of the oldest handaxes yet found underwater demonstrates preservation of hominid artefacts on the continental shelf. South African Journal of Science, 97(5–6), 183–185.Google Scholar
  128. Wessex Archaeology., 2011. Seabed Prehistory: Site Evaluation Techniques (Area 240) Synthesis. Final Report. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology.Google Scholar
  129. Westley, K., and Dix, J., 2006. Coastal environments and their role in prehistoric migrations. Journal of Maritime Archaeology, 1(1), 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Whitmore, F. C., Jr., Emery, K. O., Cooke, H. B. S., and Swift, D. J. P., 1967. Elephant teeth from the Atlantic continental shelf. Science, 156(3781), 1477–1481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wood, W. R., and Johnson, D. L., 1978. A survey of disturbance processes in archaeological site formation. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, 1, 315–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A. S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P. M. (eds.), 2007. The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate and Human Settlement. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  133. Zhang, W. Y., Harff, J., Schneider, R., and Wu, C., 2010. Development of a modelling methodology for simulation of long-term morphological evolution of the southern Baltic coast. Ocean Dynamics, 60(5), 1085–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Oceanography CentreUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK