Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards

2013 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky

Torino Scale

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4_53

Torino Scale

A numerical scale measuring the statistical chance that a specific Near-Earth Object will impact Earth.

The Torino Scale (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/risk) was developed by researchers with NASA (USA) following a conference in Torino, Italy. It assesses the likelihood that any particular Near-Earth Object (NEO), including asteroids in Earth orbit or near the Earth, and meteorites, and comets, will impact Earth. The scale includes both the statistical chance of an impact and the consequences, based on the size of the NEO.

The trajectory for each known, individual NEO can be plotted, and the statistical probability of an impact with Earth assessed. Identification of the trajectories of NEO is one component of a response strategy to the impact hazard of NEO. Groups and agencies working to identify NEO and calculate their orbits include the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), part of NASA; the United States Air Force; the Meteorite and Impact Advisory Committee of the Canadian Space...

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  1. Bobrowsky, P., and Rickman, H. 2007. Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society: an interdisciplinary approach. Berlin: Springer Verlag Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John'sCanada