Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards

2013 Edition
| Editors: Peter T. Bobrowsky

Krakatoa (Krakatau)

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4399-4_205




The Indonesian volcano of Krakatoa is one of the best known on Earth, primarily as a consequence of a catastrophic explosive eruption in 1883. This event took an estimated 36,417 lives, mainly due to associated tsunamis, and was detected on tide gauges and barometers around the world.


Krakatoa is an island volcano located in the Sunda Strait between the south coast of Sumatra and east coast of Java (lat: 6.102°S long: 105.423°E). The volcano is one of more than 130 active volcanoes in Indonesia, which form an arc stretching from Sumatra in the west to New Guinea in the east. The volcanic arc is fed by magma formed as a consequence of the northeastward subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate beneath the Sunda Plate. Indonesian volcanoes, including Krakatoa, are typically characterized by the violent eruption of viscous magmas, generating extensive ash-fall, hot ash and debris flows, volcanic mudflows (lahars), and, where adjacent to water,...

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  1. Self, S., and Rampino, M. R., 1981. The 1883 eruption of Krakatau. Nature, 294, 699–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Simkin, T., and Fiske, R. S., 1980. Krakatau, 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, p. 464.Google Scholar
  3. Winchester, S., 2003. Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883. New York: HarperCollins, p. 448.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesAon Benfield UCL Hazard Research Centre, University College LondonLondonUK