Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons opened for signatories on 1 July 1968. It came into force on 5 March 1970. A review meeting takes place every five years. The initial treaty was limited to a 25-year term but it was extended indefinitely in 1995.
The treaty aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The International Atomic Energy Agency (see page 25) is responsible for setting safeguards to ensure compliance.
Of the treaty’s 190 members only five have nuclear weapon capabilities: China, France, Russia, UK and USA. Three states known or believed to have developed nuclear weapons have not ratified the treaty: India, Israel and Pakistan. North Korea withdrew from the treaty in 2003, the only state to have done so.
See also Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) on page 26.