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Sensing and Actuation in Intelligent Vehicles

  • Angelos Amditis
  • Panagiotis Lytrivis
  • Evangelia Portouli

Abstract

Nowadays, cars are equipped with more electronic systems than in the past. Today, vehicles are equipped with hundreds of miniature sensing systems, such as temperature, tire pressure, accelerometer, and speed sensors. Actuators are also installed as components of advanced systems for optimized braking and assisted steering, although the market for really intervening systems is not mature yet.

In this chapter, different sensing and actuation systems are highlighted. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of these systems and do not go deep into detail about the different technologies behind such systems. The sensors are grouped into three different categories: general in-vehicle sensors, perception sensors, and virtual sensors. Most of the general in-vehicle sensors are already available in the automotive market in the majority of commercial cars. On the other hand, the market penetration rate of perception sensors, except for ultrasonic sensors, is very low mainly because of their cost. Finally, there are some information sources that are not actual sensors and play a significant role in automotive applications, such as the digital maps. Actuators are first distinguished and described according to their energy source into mechanical actuators, electrical actuators, pneumatic or hydraulic actuators, piezoelectric actuators, and thermal bimorphs. Next, the design of advanced intervening systems is presented, namely, the ABS, electronic stability control, autonomous cruise control, assisted steering. More advanced systems like the steer by wire and brake by wire are also presented, although they have not yet entered the market as products, with few exceptions. Finally, the vision of a fully automated vehicle is presented together with the considerations that still accompany it, and some first prototypes and research work toward this direction are highlighted.

Keywords

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Solenoid Valve Ultrasonic Sensor Adaptive Cruise Control Radar Sensor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelos Amditis
    • 1
  • Panagiotis Lytrivis
    • 1
  • Evangelia Portouli
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Communication and Computer Systems (ICCS)ZografouGreece
  2. 2.National Technical University of AthensZografouGreece

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