Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) Design: Safety, Neutronics, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Mechanics, Fuel, Core, and Plant Design

  • Luciano Cinotti
  • Craig F. Smith
  • Carlo Artioli
  • Giacomo Grasso
  • Giovanni Corsini
Reference work entry


The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) has both a long history and a currency of innovation. With early work related to the mission of submarine propulsion dating to the 1950s, Russian scientists pioneered the development of reactors cooled by heavy liquid metals (HLM). More recently, there has been substantial design interest in both critical and subcritical reactors cooled by lead (Pb) or lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE), not only in Russia, but also in Europe, Asia, and the USA. This chapter reviews the historical development of the LFR and provides detailed descriptions of the recent and current initiatives to design a variety of LFR concepts with several different missions in mind: accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) systems for nuclear materials management, small modular systems for deployment in remote locations, and central station plants for integration into developed power grids. It describes design criteria and system specifications; features particular to the LFR in terms of neutronics, coolant properties, and material compatibility issues; approaches taken to core and reactor design; and considerations related to the balance of plant and plant layout.


Primary System Natural Circulation Core Design Molten Lead Spallation Target 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciano Cinotti
    • 1
  • Craig F. Smith
    • 2
  • Carlo Artioli
    • 3
  • Giacomo Grasso
    • 3
  • Giovanni Corsini
    • 3
  1. 1.MERIVUS srlRomaITALY
  2. 2.Naval Postgraduate SchoolMontereyUSA
  3. 3.Energy and Sustainable Economic DevelopmentItalian National Agency for New TechnologiesBolognaITALY

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