Resistant Starch and Starch-Derived Oligosaccharides as Prebiotics

  • A. Adam-Perrot
  • L. Gutton
  • L. Sanders
  • S. Bouvier
  • C. Combe
  • R. Van Den Abbeele
  • S. Potter
  • A. W. C. Einerhand


Dietary fiber has long been recommended as part of a healthy diet based on the observations made by Burkitt and Trowell (1975). Since then, epidemiological evidence has consistently shown that populations consuming higher levels of foods containing fiber have decreased risk of a variety of chronic health disorders such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and certain cancers. Average fiber intake in the United States is approximately 13 g/day for women and 18 g/day for men (National Academy of Sciences, 2006). The FDA recommends a minimum of 20–35 g/day for a healthy adult depending on calorific intake. In many EU countries including France, Germany and the UK (see Figure 9.1 ), fiber intakes are much lower than authorities recommend for men and women (Buttriss and Stokes, 2008; Gray, 2006). Thus, there is a need to increase fiber consumption and many newly isolated or developed fibers can easily be added to beverages and processed foods. The reasons for such low compliance is somewhat complex, however the most basic rationale for not consuming fiber-rich foods is perceived bad taste and mouthfeel and the availability of conventional food items containing fiber.


Dietary Fiber Resistant Starch Glycemic Response High Amylose Fecal Output 


  1. Asp NG (1997) Resistant starch – an update on its physiological effects. Adv Exp Med Biol 427:201–210Google Scholar
  2. Bauer-Marinovic M, Florian S, Müller-Schmehl K, Glatt H, Jacobasch G (2006) Dietary resistant starch type 3 prevents tumour induction by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and alters proliferation, apoptosis and dedifferentiation in rat colon. Carcinogenesis 27:1849–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Birkett A, Muir J, Phillips J, Jones G, O’Dea K (1996) Resistant starch lowers fecal concentrations of ammonia and phenols in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 63:766–772Google Scholar
  4. Bouhnik Y, Raskine L, Simoneau G, Vicaut E, Neut C, Flourie B, Brouns F, Bornet FR (2004) The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response relation study. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1658–1664Google Scholar
  5. Brouns F, Arrigoni E, Langkilde AM, Verkooijen I, Fassler C, Andersson H, Kettlitz B, van Nieuwenhoven M, Philipsson H, Amado R (2007) Physiological and metabolic properties of a digestion-resistant maltodextrin, classified as type 3 retrograded resistant starch. J Agric Food Chem 55:1574–1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown I, Warhurst M, Arcot J, Playne M, Illman RJ, Topping DL (1997) Fecal numbers of bifidobacteria are higher in pigs fed Bifidobacterium longum with a high amylose cornstarch than with a low amylose cornstarch. J Nutr 127:1822–1827Google Scholar
  7. Burkitt DP, Trowell HC (1975) Refined carbohydrate foods and disease: some implications of dietary fibre. Academic Press, London, p. 369Google Scholar
  8. Burns AJ, Rowland IR (2000) Anti-carcinogenicity of probiotics and prebiotics. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 1:13–24Google Scholar
  9. Buttriss JL, Stokes CS (2008) Dietary fibre and health: an overview. Nutr Bull 33:186–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cassand P, Maziere S, Champ M, Meflah K, Bornet F, Narbonne JF (1997) Effects of resistant starch- and vitamin A-supplemented diets on the promotion of precursor lesions of colon cancer in rats. Nutr Cancer 27:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cassidy A, Bingham SA, Cummings JH (1994) Starch intake and colorectal cancer risk: an international comparison. Br J Cancer 69:937–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crittenden RG, Morris LF, Harvey ML, Tran LT, Mitchell HL, Playne MJ (2001) Selection of a Bifidobacterium strain to complement resistant starch in a synbiotic yoghurt. J Appl Microbiol 90:268–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cummings JH, Beatty ER, Kingman SM, Bingham SA, Englyst HN (1996) Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel. Br J Nutr 75:733–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dongowski G, Jacobasch G, Schmiedl D (2005) Structural stability and prebiotic properties of resistant starch type 3 increase bile acid turnover and lower secondary bile acid formation. J Agric Food Chem 53:9257–9267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fassler C, Arrigoni E, Venema K, Brouns F, Amado R (2006) In vitro fermentability of differently digested resistant starch preparations. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:1220–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fassler C, Gill CI, Arrigoni E, Rowland I, Amado R (2007) Fermentation of resistant starches: influence of in vitro models on colon carcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 58:85–92Google Scholar
  17. Fastinger N, Knapp B, Guevara M, Parsons C, Swanson K, Fahey G (2007) Glycemic response and metabolizable energy content of novel maize-based soluble fibers F4–809, F4–810 and F4–810LS using canine and avian models. FASEB J 21:A744Google Scholar
  18. Fastinger ND, Karr-Lilienthal LK, Spears JK, Swanson KS, Zinn KE, Nava GM, Ohkuma K, Kanahori S, Gordon DT, Fahey GC Jr (2008) A novel resistant maltodextrin alters gastrointestinal tolerance factors, fecal characteristics, and fecal microbiota in healthy adult humans. J Am Coll Nutr 27:356–366Google Scholar
  19. Ferguson LR, Zhu S, Kestell P (2003) Contrasting effects of non-starch polysaccharide and resistant starch-based diets on the disposition and excretion of the food carcinogen, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), in a rat model. Food Chem Toxicol 41:785–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Flickinger EA, Wolf BW, Garleb KA, Chow J, Leyer GJ, Johns PW, Fahey GC Jr (2000) Glucose-based oligosaccharides exhibit different in vitro fermentation patterns and affect in vivo apparent nutrient digestibility and microbial populations in dogs. J Nutr 130:1267–1273Google Scholar
  21. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412Google Scholar
  22. Gray J (2006) Dietary fibre: definition, analysis, physiology & health. ILSI Europe Consise monograph series, pp. 1–44Google Scholar
  23. Grubben MJ, van den Braak CC, Essenberg M, Olthof M, Tangerman A, Katan MB, Nagengast FM (2001) Effect of resistant starch on potential biomarkers for colonic cancer risk in patients with colonic adenomas: a controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci 46:750–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hampson DJ, Robertson ID, La T, Oxberry SL, Pethick DW (2000) Influences of diet and vaccination on colonisation of pigs by the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli. Vet Microbiol 73:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heijnen ML, Beynen AC (1997) Consumption of retrograded (RS3) but not uncooked (RS2) resistant starch shifts nitrogen excretion from urine to feces in cannulated piglets. J Nutr 127:1828–1832Google Scholar
  26. Heijnen ML, van Amelsvoort JM, Deurenberg P, Beynen AC (1998) Limited effect of consumption of uncooked (RS2) or retrograded (RS3) resistant starch on putative risk factors for colon cancer in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 67:322–331Google Scholar
  27. Hylla S, Gostner A, Dusel G, Anger H, Bartram HP, Christl SU, Kasper H, Scheppach W (1998) Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 67:136–142Google Scholar
  28. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2006) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino acids. National Academy of SciencesGoogle Scholar
  29. Jacobasch G, Dongowski G, Schmiedl D, Muller-Schmehl K (2006) Hydrothermal treatment of Novelose 330 results in high yield of resistant starch type 3 with beneficial prebiotic properties and decreased secondary bile acid formation in rats. Br J Nutr 95:1063–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacobasch G, Dongowski G, Schmiedl D, Muller-Schmehl K (2006) Hydrothermal treatment of Novelose 330 results in high yield of resistant starch type 3 with beneficial prebiotic properties and decreased secondary bile acid formation in rats. Br J Nutr 95:1063–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jenkins DJ, Vuksan V, Kendall CW, Wursch P, Jeffcoat R, Waring S, Mehling CC, Vidgen E, Augustin LS, Wong E (1998) Physiological effects of resistant starches on fecal bulk, short chain fatty acids, blood lipids and glycemic index. J Am Coll Nutr 17:609–616Google Scholar
  32. Kendall C, Esfahani A, Hoffman A, Evans A, Sanders LJ,AR, Vidgen E, Potter S (2008) Effect of novel maize-based dietary fibers on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. J Am Coll Nutr 27:711–718Google Scholar
  33. Kendall C, Esfahani A, Sanders L, Potter S, Jenkins D (2009) Resistant starch reduces postprandial glycemic and insulinemic response and increases satiety in humans. FASEB J, in pressGoogle Scholar
  34. Kendall C, Josse A, Potter S, Hoffman A, Jenkins D (2007) Effect of novel maize-based dietary fibers on postprandial glycemia. FASEB J 21:A177Google Scholar
  35. Knapp BK, Parsons CM, Swanson KS, Fahey GC Jr (2008) Physiological responses to novel carbohydrates as assessed using canine and avian models. J Agric Food Chem 56:7999–8006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Le Blay GM, Michel CD, Blottiere HM, Cherbut CJ (2003) Raw potato starch and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides affect the composition and metabolic activity of rat intestinal microbiota differently depending on the caecocolonic segment involved. J Appl Microbiol 94:312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Le Leu RK, Brown IL, Hu Y, Bird AR, Jackson M, Esterman A, Young GP (2005) A synbiotic combination of resistant starch and Bifidobacterium lactis facilitates apoptotic deletion of carcinogen-damaged cells in rat colon. J Nutr 135:996–1001Google Scholar
  38. Lefranc-Millot C (2008) NUTRIOSE® 06: a useful soluble dietary fibre for added nutritional value. Nutr Bull 33:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, Sanders ME, Cabana MD, Caglar E, Corthier G, Rayes N, Sherman PM, Timmerman HM, Vaneechoutte M, Van Loo J, Wolvers DA (2007) Probiotic and prebiotic influence beyond the intestinal tract. Nutr Rev 65:469–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lesmes U, Beards EJ, Gibson GR, Tuohy KM, Shimoni E (2008) Effects of resistant starch type III polymorphs on human colon microbiota and short chain fatty acids in human gut models. J Agric Food Chem 56:5415–5421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Livesey G (1992) The energy values of dietary fibre and sugar alcohols for man. Nutr Res Rev 5:61–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lopez HW, Levrat-Verny MA, Coudray C, Besson C, Krespine V, Messager A, Demigne C, Remesy C (2001) Class 2 resistant starches lower plasma and liver lipids and improve mineral retention in rats. J Nutr 131:1283–1289Google Scholar
  43. Maathuis A, Hoffman A, Evans A, Sanders L, Venema K (2008) Digestibility and prebiotic potential of nondigestible carbohydrate fractions from novel maize-based fibers in a dynamic in vitro model of the human intestine. FASEB J 22:1089–1087Google Scholar
  44. Macfarlane S (2008) Microbial biofilm communities in the gastrointestinal tract. Journal of clinical gastroenterology 42(Suppl. 3)S142–S143 Pt 1:CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maki K, Sanders L, Reeves M, Kaden V, Cartwright Y (2009) Effects of resistant starch vs wheat bran on laxation in healthy adults. FASEB J, in pressGoogle Scholar
  46. Marsono Y, Illman RJ, Clarke JM, Trimble RP, Topping DL (1993) Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran. Br J Nutr 70:503–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martin B, Lachcik P, Story J, Weaver C (2009) Calcium absorption, retention and bone density are enhanced by different fibers in male Sprague Dawley rats. FASEB J, in pressGoogle Scholar
  48. Maziere S, Meflah K, Tavan E, Champ M, Narbonne JF, Cassand P (1998) Effect of resistant starch and/or fat-soluble vitamins A and E on the initiation stage of aberrant crypts in rat colon. Nutr Cancer 31:168–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muir JG, Yeow EG, Keogh J, Pizzey C, Bird AR, Sharpe K, O’Dea K, Macrae FA (2004) Combining wheat bran with resistant starch has more beneficial effects on fecal indexes than does wheat bran alone. Am J Clin Nutr 79:1020–1028Google Scholar
  50. Oku T, Nakamura S (2002) Digestion, absorption, fermentation, and metabolism of functional sugar substitutes and their available energy. Pure Appl Chem 74:1253–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Perrin P, Pierre F, Patry Y, Champ M, Berreur M, Pradal G, Bornet F, Meflah K, Menanteau J (2001) Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Gut 48:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Phillips J, Muir JG, Birkett A, Lu ZX, Jones GP, O’Dea K, Young GP (1995) Effect of resistant starch on fecal bulk and fermentation-dependent events in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 62:121–130Google Scholar
  53. Rabbani GH, Teka T, Zaman B, Majid N, Khatun M, Fuchs GJ (2001) Clinical studies in persistent diarrhoea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladeshi children. Gastroenterology 121:554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ramakrishna BS, Subramanian V, Mohan V, Sebastian BK, Young GP, Farthing MJ, Binder HJ (2008) A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute dehydrating diarrhoea. PLoS ONE 3:e1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ramakrishna BS, Venkataraman S, Srinivasan P, Dash P, Young GP, Binder HJ (2000) Amylase-resistant starch plus oral rehydration solution for cholera. N Engl J Med 342:308–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Roberfroid M (2007) Prebiotics: the concept revisited. J Nutr 137:830S–837SGoogle Scholar
  57. Ruemmele FM, Schwartz S, Seidman EG, Dionne S, Levy E, Lentze MJ (2003) Butyrate induced Caco-2 cell apoptosis is mediated via the mitochondrial pathway. Gut 52:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sakamoto J, Nakaji S, Sugawara K, Iwane S, Munakata A (1996) Comparison of resistant starch with cellulose diet on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Gastroenterology 110:116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sanders L, Kendall C, Maki K, Stewart M, Slavin J, Potter S (2008) A novel maize-based dietary fiber is well tolerated in humans. FASEB J 22:lb761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Satouchi M, Wakabayashi S, Ohkuma K, Fuyuwara K, Matsouka A (1993) Effects of indigestible dextrine on bowelmovements. Jpn J Nutr 51:31–37Google Scholar
  61. Schley PD, Field CJ (2002) The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. Br J Nutr 87(Suppl. 2):S221–S230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scholz-Ahrens KE, Ade P, Marten B, Weber P, Timm W, Acil Y, Gluer CC, Schrezenmeir J (2007) Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure. J Nutr 137:838S–846SGoogle Scholar
  63. Silvi S, Rumney CJ, Cresci A, Rowland IR (1999) Resistant starch modifies gut microflora and microbial metabolism in human flora-associated rats inoculated with faeces from Italian and UK donors. J Appl Microbiol 86:521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stewart M, Nikhanj S, Timm D, Thomas W, Slavin J (2009) Four different fibers from maize and tapioca are well tolerated in a placebo-controlled study in humans. FASEB J, in pressGoogle Scholar
  65. Toden S, Bird AR, Topping DL, Conlon MA (2005) Resistant starch attenuates colonic DNA damage induced by higher dietary protein in rats. Nutr Cancer 51:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Topping DL, Fukushima M, Bird AR (2003) Resistant starch as a prebiotic and synbiotic: state of the art. Proc Nutr Soc 62:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tran CP, Familari M, Parker LM, Whitehead RH, Giraud AS (1998) Short-chain fatty acids inhibit intestinal trefoil factor gene expression in colon cancer cells. Am J Physiol 275:G85–G94Google Scholar
  68. Tuohy KM, Rouzaud GC, Bruck WM, Gibson GR (2005) Modulation of the human gut microflora towards improved health using prebiotics – assessment of efficacy. Curr Pharm Des 11:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. van den Heuvel EG, Wils D, Pasman WJ, Saniez MH, Kardinaal AF (2005) Dietary supplementation of different doses of NUTRIOSE FB, a fermentable dextrin, alters the activity of faecal enzymes in healthy men. Eur J Nutr 44:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. van Munster IP, Tangerman A, Nagengast FM (1994) Effect of resistant starch on colonic fermentation, bile acid metabolism, and mucosal proliferation. Dig Dis Sci 39:834–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vermorel M, Coudray C, Wils D, Sinaud S, Tressol JC, Montaurier C, Vernet J, Brandolini M, Bouteloup-Demange C, Rayssiguier Y (2004) Energy value of a low-digestible carbohydrate, NUTRIOSE FB, and its impact on magnesium, calcium and zinc apparent absorption and retention in healthy young men. Eur J Nutr 43:344–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vos AP, M’Rabet L, Stahl B, Boehm G, Garssen J (2007) Immune-modulatory effects and potential working mechanisms of orally applied nondigestible carbohydrates. Crit Rev Immunol 27:97–140Google Scholar
  73. Wang X, Brown IL, Khaled D, Mahoney MC, Evans AJ, Conway PL (2002) Manipulation of colonic bacteria and volatile fatty acid production by dietary high amylose maize (amylomaize) starch granules. J Appl Microbiol 93:390–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Williamson SL, Kartheuser A, Coaker J, Kooshkghazi MD, Fodde R, Burn J, Mathers JC (1999) Intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc1638N mouse treated with aspirin and resistant starch for up to 5 months. Carcinogenesis 20:805–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Younes H, Coudray C, Bellanger J, Demigne C, Rayssiguier Y, Remesy C (2001) Effects of two fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and their combination on calcium and magnesium balance in rats. Br J Nutr 86:479–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Young GP, McIntyre A, Albert V, Folino M, Muir JG, Gibson PR (1996) Wheat bran suppresses potato starch--potentiated colorectal tumorigenesis at the aberrant crypt stage in a rat model. Gastroenterology 110:508–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Adam-Perrot
    • 1
  • L. Gutton
    • 1
  • L. Sanders
    • 1
  • S. Bouvier
    • 1
  • C. Combe
    • 1
  • R. Van Den Abbeele
    • 1
  • S. Potter
    • 1
  • A. W. C. Einerhand
    • 1
  1. 1.TATE & LYLE Innovation Centre, Parc Scientific de la Haute BorneVilleneuve d’AscqFrance

Personalised recommendations