Advertisement

Prebiotic Potential of Polydextrose

  • Julian D. Stowell
Reference work entry

Abstract

Polydextrose is a randomly bonded polymer of glucose with some sorbitol end-groups. It was originally developed by scientists at Pfizer seeking a low calorie bulking agent to be used in conjunction with intense sweeteners. Polydextrose has been used for more than 25 years in human food and beverage products around the world. It is currently marketed by Danisco A/S as Litesse®Two and Litesse®UltraTM and by A E Staley as Sta-Lite III.

Keywords

Short Chain Fatty Acid Intense Sweetener Glycaemic Response Beverage Product Colonic Fermentation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Achour L, Flourie B, Briet F, Pellier P, Marteau P, Rambaud J (1994) Gastro-intestinal effects and energy value of polydextrose in healthy non-obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 59:1362Google Scholar
  2. Anon (2002) AOAC official method 2000.11 Polydextrose in foods. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 17th edition, revision 2, 2003, Chap. 45, p 78CGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon (2004) Food chemicals codex. Fifth Edition, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. ISBN 0-309-08866-6, 336–339Google Scholar
  4. Arrigoni E, Jann A, Rochat F, Amado R (1999) In vitro fermentability of indigestible oligo- and polysaccharides. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Food Science, Zurich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  5. Auerbach M, Craig S, Mitchell H (2006) Bulking agents: multifunctional ingredients. In: Mitchell H (ed) Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, ISBN-13: 978-14051-3434-7Google Scholar
  6. Auerbach MH, Craig SAS, Howlett JF, Hayes KC (2007) Caloric availability of polydextrose. Nutr Rev 65(12):544–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burdock GA, Flamm WG (1999) A review of the studies of the safety of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 37(2–3):233–264Google Scholar
  8. EC/SCF (1990) 4.2 Polydextrose. Excerpt from the minutes of the 71st meeting of the Scientific Committee for Foods held on 25–26 JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  9. Endo K, Kumemura M, Nakamura K, Fujisawa T, Suzuki K, Benno Y, Mitsuoka T (1991) Effect of high cholesterol diet and polydextrose supplementation on the microflora, bacterial enzyme activity, putrefactive products, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile, weight, and pH of the feces in healthy volunteers. Bifidobact Microflora 10:53Google Scholar
  10. Fava F, Mäkivuokko H, Siljander-Rasi H, Putaala H, Tiihonen K, Stowell J, Tuohy K, Gibson G, Rautonen N (2007) Effect of polydextrose and intestinal microbes and immune functions in pigs. B J Nutr 98:123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Figdor SK, Bianchine JR (1983) Caloric utilization and disposition of [14C]polydextrose in man. J Agric Food Chem 31:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Figdor SK, Rennhard HH (1981) Caloric utilization and disposition of [14C]polydextrose in the rat. J Agric Food Chem 29:1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flood MT, Auerbach MH, Craig SAS (2004) A review of the clinical toleration studies of polydextrose in food. Food Chem Toxicol 42:1531–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC (2002) International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):5–56Google Scholar
  15. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412Google Scholar
  16. Gibson GR, Probert HM, Van Loo J, Rastall RA, Roberfroid MB (2004) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nut Res Rev 17:259–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hara H, Suzuki T, Aoyama Y (2000) Ingestion of the soluble dietary fibre, polydextrose, increases calcium absorption and bone mineralization in normal and total-gastrectomized rats. B J Nutr 84:655–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ishizuka S, Nagai T, Hara H (2003) Reduction of aberrant crypt foci by ingestion of polydextrose in the rat colorectum. Nutr Res 23:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. JECFA (1987) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Thirty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, World Health Organization Technical Report Series 759, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  20. Jie Z, Luo B, Xiang M, Liu H, Zhai Z, Wang T, Craig SAS (2000) Studies on the effects of polydextrose on physiological function in Chinese people. Am J Clin Nutr 72:1503–1509Google Scholar
  21. Juhr N, Franke J (1992) A method for estimating the available energy of incompletely digested carbohydrates in rats. J Nutr 122:1425Google Scholar
  22. King NA, Craig SAS, Pepper T, Blundell JE (2005) Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10d. Br J Nutr 93:911–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knapp BK, Parsons CM, Swanson KS, Fahey GC, Jr. (2008), “Physiological responses to novel carbohydrates as assessed using canine and avian models”. J Agric Food Chem 56(17):7999–8006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kobayashi T, Yoshino H (1989). Enzymatic hydrolysis of “Polydextrose”. Denpun Kagaku 36:283–286Google Scholar
  25. Mäkeläinen HS, Mäkivuokko HA, Salminen SJ, Rautonen NE, Ouwehand AC (2007) The effects of polydextrose and xylitol on microbial community and activity in a 4-stage colon simulator. J Food Sci 72(5):M153–M159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mäkivuokko H, Kettunen H, Saarinen M, Kamiwaki T, Yokoyama Y, Stowell J, Rautonen N (2007) “The effect of cocoa and polydextrose on bacterial fermentation in gastrointestinal tract simulations”. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71(8):1834–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mäkivuokko H, Nurmi J, Nurminen P, Stowell J, Rautonen N (2005) In vitro effects on polydextrose by colonic bacteria and Caco-2 cell cyclooxygenase gene expression. Nutr Cancer 52:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McMahon FG (1978) Polydextrose food additive petition. Pfizer Inc., New YorkFDA Petition 9A3441Google Scholar
  29. Mineo H, Hara H, Kikuchi H, Sakura H, Tomita F (2001) “Various indigestible saccharides enhance net calcium transport from the epithelium of the small and large intestine of rats in vitro”. J Nutr 131:3243–3246Google Scholar
  30. Mitchell H, Auerbach MH, Moppett FK (2001) Polydextrose. In: Nabors L, O’Brien (eds) Alternative Sweeteners, Third Edition Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, ISBN: 0-8247-0437-1Google Scholar
  31. Oku T, Fuji Y, Okamatsu H (1991) Polydextrose as dietary fiber: hydrolysis by digestive enzymes and its effect on gastrointestineal transit time in rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 11:31–40Google Scholar
  32. Peuranen S, Tiihonen K, Apajalahti J, Kettunen A, Saarinen M, Rautonen N (2004) Combination of polydextrose and lactitol affects microbial ecosystem and immune responses in rat gastrointestinal tract. B J Nutr 91:905–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Probert HM, Apajalahti JHA, Rautonen N, Stowell J, Gibson GR (2004) Polydextrose, lactitol and fructo-oligosaccharide fermentation by colonic bacteria in a three-stage continuous culture system. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4505–4511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Solomons NW, Rosenthal A (1985) Intestinal metabolism of random-bonded polyglucose bulking agent in humans: in vitro and in vivo studies of hydrogen evolution. J Lab Clin Med 105:585–592Google Scholar
  35. Stowell JD (2009) Polydextrose. In: Cho SS (ed) Fiber ingredients: food applications and health benefits. Taylor & Francis, ISBN10 1420043846, pp. 173–204Google Scholar
  36. Stumm I, Baltes W (1997) Analysis of the linkage positions in polydextrose by the reductive cleavage method. Food Chem 59:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tiihonen K, Suomalainen T, Tynkkynen S, Rautonen N (2008) Effect of prebiotic supplementation on a probiotic bacteria mixture: comparison between a rat model and clinical trials. B J Nutr 99:826–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vasankari TJ, Ahotupa M (2005) Supplementation of polydextrose reduced a hamburger meal induced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. AHA Congress Proceedings, vol. 112. American Heart Association (AHA) Congress, Dallas, 16th November, 2005, pp. II-833Google Scholar
  39. Wang X, Gibson GR (1993) Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. J Appl Bacteriol 75:373Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian D. Stowell
    • 1
  1. 1.Danisco Sweeteners, Danisco (UK) LtdRedhillUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations