Measuring Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Disease Burden in Asia

  • W. Liu
  • D. Ding
  • J. D. Clemens
  • N. T. Yen
  • V. Porpit
  • Z.‐Y. Xu
Reference work entry


Japanese  encephalitis is spread in virtually all Asian countries where pig rearing and rice cultivation are common agricultural practices. Disease burden due to JE was assessed in Shanghai, China (temperate region), Bali, Indonesia (tropical region), Northern Provinces of Thailand (subtropical region) and Northern Provinces of Vietnam (subtropical region) by a model of cumulative JE incidence for hypothetical cohorts in the four sites, each consisting of 100,000 newborn babies from birth through 15 years of age. The cumulative JE incidence rates were measured by age-specific, JE incidence rates averaged from an epidemic cycle during the pre-JE immunization eras. The model predicted 271 JE cases, 36 deaths, 81 disabilities, and 3,022 disability adjusted life years ( DALYs) lost associated with JE for the cohort in China; it predicted 110 JE cases, 11 deaths, 30 disabilities and 1,012 lost DALYs for the cohort of Vietnam. In Thailand, 192 cases, 33 deaths, 92 disabilities, and 3,161 lost DALYs were estimated. In Indonesia, 63 JE cases, 6 JE deaths, 23 disabilities would occur and 1,412 DALYs would be lost due to JE. On average, disability contributes about 58–70% to the DALYs lost in these four countries. Both years lived with disability (YLD) and years of life lost (YLL) were higher in the 0–9 year age group. The overall disease burden due to JE is high for all four countries. However, the burden was highest in Shanghai of the temperate region and lowest on the tropical island of Bali.


Disease Burden Japanese Encephalitis Virus Japanese Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis Year Live With Disability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:


cerebrospinal fluid


disability adjusted life years


immunoglubin M


Japanese encephalitis


years lived with disability


years of life lost



This project was supported by grants from Bill and Melinda Gates Children's Vaccine Program (CVP), Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH), Seattle, WA USA (contract number: 00-GAT.770–790–01149-LPS) and the Korean International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), South Korea (contract number: 2003–138).


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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Liu
    • 1
  • D. Ding
    • 2
  • J. D. Clemens
    • 3
  • N. T. Yen
    • 4
  • V. Porpit
    • 5
  • Z.‐Y. Xu
    • 6
  1. 1.International Vaccine InstituteKwanak-kuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of NeurologyHuashan Hospital, Fudan University, WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training in NeurosciencesShanghaiChina
  3. 3.International Vaccine InstituteKwanak-kuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyNational Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology (NIHE)HanoiVietnam
  5. 5.Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public HealthImmunization Program, Bureau of General Communicable DiseasesBangkokThailand
  6. 6.International Vaccine InstituteKwanak-kuRepublic of Korea

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