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Disease Burden from Group A Neisseria meningitidis Meningitis in Hyperendemic Countries of the African Meningitis Belt

  • C. Suraratdecha
  • C. Levin
  • F. M. LaForce
Reference work entry

Abstract:

Neisseria meningitidis meningitis is a devastating illness characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, high fever, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and stiff neck. The disease has a high mortality rate and is associated with long-term neurological defects such as deafness and recurrent seizures.  Epidemics of group A meningococcal meningitis continue to pose an important public health problem for sub-Saharan Africa. The last major epidemic occurred in 1996–1997, with more than 180,000 reported cases and 20,000 deaths. During 2006 and 2007 Burkina Faso suffered more than 45,000 cases of group A meningococcal meningitis. Using the population-based incidence and bacteriologic data from Niger to estimate disease burden in seven hyperendemic countries (Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, and Ethiopia), over a 10-year period, group A N. meningitidis is estimated to cause about 1.1 million cases of meningitis, 133,000 deaths, 317,000 disabilities, and 12 million disability-adjusted life years lost in the population 0- to 40-year-old  cohorts. Over the last few years a major effort has been under way to control epidemic meningococcal disease in Africa through the development, testing, licensure, and introduction of new conjugate meningococcal  vaccines. The Meningitis Vaccine Project, a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization, is developing an affordable meningococcal A  conjugate vaccine that will be introduced at public health scale in 2009. Wide-scale introduction of the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is expected to eliminate these epidemics.

Keywords

Bacterial Meningitis Conjugate Vaccine Neisseria Meningitidis Meningococcal Meningitis Mass Vaccination Campaign 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

CFR

 case-fatality rate

DALYs

disability-adjusted life years

Men A

meningococcal A

Men Ps

meningococcal polysaccharide

PCR

 polymerase chain reaction

WHO

World Health Organization

WHO-CHOICE

choosing interventions that are cost effective

YLD

years lost due to disability

YLL

years of life lost

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Suraratdecha
    • 1
  • C. Levin
    • 1
  • F. M. LaForce
    • 2
  1. 1.PATHSeattleUSA
  2. 2.PATH, Batiment Avant CentreFerney-VoltaireFrance

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