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Burden of Stroke: Indian Perspective

  • P. M. Dalal
  • M. Bhattacharjee
Reference work entry

Abstract:

In recent years economic and demographic transitions in India have resulted in shift to lifestyle-related chronic diseases like  stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), diabetes and cancer. In the year 2005, India accounted for more than 53% of all deaths and 44% of  disability adjusted life years ( DALYs) lost from chronic diseases including stroke; without successful intervention, this is estimated to increase by 18% in the next 10 years. Furthermore, by 2016 an estimated US$ 84 billion of national income will be lost, in middle and low income countries, from chronic diseases alone. To reduce burden of disease in general, World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a global goal, to reduce chronic disease mortality by 2% per year, over and above what will be achieved by routine intervention; and this is likely to avert 6.4 million deaths from stroke by 2015. However, there is paucity of standardized comparable data on stroke epidemiology to design sustainable primary or secondary prevention strategies. On account of scarce resources and high costs, modern stroke-care for timely treatment of acute stroke is beyond the reach of patients in India. Nonetheless, risk factors for stroke are mainly conventional and intervention to reduce exposure to raised blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, high cholesterol, and physical inactivity, and multidrug strategy will be cost-effective. Health education, low-salt intake, stopping tobacco use, and lifestyle changes may prove effective. Surveillance of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and their determinants for intervention and prevention strategies need emphasis. Indian Council of Medical Research has initiated “risk factors surveillance” in populations. In addition, the Government of India has now launched National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in support of the above objectives. To reduce the burden of disease in developing nations, an integrated approach for prevention (primary and secondary) of chronic diseases and stroke should receive high priority.

Keywords

Verbal Autopsy Stroke Risk Factor Disability Adjusted Life National Rural Health Mission NIHSS Score 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

DALYs lost

disability adjusted life years lost

IHD

ischemic heart disease

HIV/AIDS

human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

NCD

noncommunicable diseases

MOHFW

Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India

OxHA

Oxford Health Alliance

CVD

cerebrovascular disease/stroke

GBD

global burden of disease

FES

 first ever stroke

TIA

transient ischemic attack

CT

computerized tomography

GSI

global stroke initiative

SD

standard deviation

CI

confidence interval

WHO

World Health Organization

BP

blood pressure

OR

odds ratio

RF

risk factors

ICASS

Indian Collaborative Acute Stroke Study

QOL

quality of life

HT

hypertension

DM

diabetes mellitus

NIHSS

 National Institute of Health Stroke Scale

t-PA

tissue plasminogen activator

MRS

 modified Rankin Scale

INR

Indian rupees

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Dalal
    • 1
  • M. Bhattacharjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Lilavati Hospital & L. K. M. M. Trust Research Centre Bandra ReclamationMumbaiIndia

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