Burden of Ischemic Heart Diseases in Serbia
For decades now, cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Belgrade (Serbia) has occupied first place as a cause of death. In the Belgrade population aged 30–69, CVD caused about 40% of all deaths. During the period 1975–2000, mortality rates of all CVD increased significantly by 17.1%. Yet mortality rates of IHD decreased by 8% in men and 22% in women.
In the Serbian population, as in the populations of developed countries, IHD is the leading single cause of premature years of life lost (YLL) for both sexes, being responsible for 16.7% of the total YLL. It is the leading single cause of premature death for males with 87,191 YLLs in 2000. In females, cerebrovascular disease is the leading cause of YLL followed by IHD (48,965 YLLs in 2000).
In Serbia in 2000, IHD was responsible for 8,833 years of life with disability (YLD) in men and 5,902 YLD in women.
The total burden of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Serbia in 2000 was estimated at 96,023 disability adjusted life years (DALY) for men and 54,866 DALY for women. The total burden of IHD was higher for males than females. For IHD, the DALY rates per 1,000 population increased with aging in both men and women, and peaked in the oldest, 75 years of age and over. The proportion of YLD in DALY (10%) for IHD in Serbia was higher than in the EURO region (6%). The factors most responsible for this IHD burden were smoking, physical inactivity, hypertension and overweight/obesity.
Despite obvious limitations, the DALY estimates can be used as a guide for preventing IHD as well as for evaluating the scope of future health gains obtained by reducing population exposure to various risk factors.
KeywordsIschemic Heart Disease Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality Serbian Population Disability Adjusted Life Year Life Lost
List of Abbreviations:
disability adjusted life lost
established market economics
formerly socialist economies
ischemic heart disease
Serbian burden disease study
World Health Organization
years of life with disability
years of life lost
- Ahmad OB, Boschi–Pinto C, Lopez A, Murray CJL, Lozano R, Inoue M. (2000). Age Standardization of Rates. A New WHO Standard. GPE Discussion Paper Series No. 31. WHO, Geneva, p. 3.Google Scholar
- Allender S, Scarborough P, Peto V, Rayner M, Leal J, Luengo-Fernandez, Gray A. (2008). European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics, BHF, London. Also available at: http://www.dphpc.ox.ac.uk/bhfhprg.
- Cindy and Monica Collaborative Center (unpublished data). (1998). Register of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke, Novi Sad.Google Scholar
- Coale AJ, Demeny P, Vaughan B. (1983). Models of mortality and age composition. In: Coale et al. (eds.)Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
- Department of Humane Services. (1999). The Victorian Burden of Disease Study–Morbidity. DALY (YLD and YLL). Public Health and Development Division, Department of Human Services, Melbourne. Available at: www.dhs.vic.gov.au.
- Department of human service and Southern health care network. (2000). Southern Metropolitan Burden of Disease Study: Mortality and Morbidity. Department of Human Services, Victoria. Also available at: http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/phd/9909073/index.htm.
- Jankovic S, Vlajinac H, Bjegovic V, Marinkovic J, Sipetic-Grujicic S, Markovic-Denic, Kocev N, Santric-Milicevic M, Terzic-Supic Z, Maksimovic N, Lasser U. (2006). Eur J Public Health. 122: 277–284.Google Scholar
- English DR, Holman CDJ, Milne E. (1995). The Quantification of Drug Caused Morbidity and Mortality in Australia, 1995 edition. Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health, Canberra.Google Scholar
- Force of the European Society of Cardiology on Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity Statistics in Europe. (1997). Eur Heart J. 18: 1231–1248.Google Scholar
- Institute of Public Health of Serbia. (2001). 2000 Population Health Survey in Serbia. Belgrade, Serbia.Google Scholar
- Lozano R, Murray CJL, Lopez D, Satoh T. (2001). Miscoding and Misclassification of Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality. GPE Discussion Paper No. 12. WHO, Geneva. Also available at: http://www.who.int./evidence.
- Lilienfeld MA, Lilienfeld ED. (1980). Foundation of Epidemiology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 217–218.Google Scholar
- Mackey J, Mensah G. (2004). The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. WHO, CDC, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Mathers C, Vos T, Stevenson C. (1999). The Burden of Disease and Injury in Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. AIHW, Canberra. Also available at: http://www.aihw.gov/au.
- Mathers C, Boschi-Pinto C. (2003). Global Burden of Cancer in the Year 2000: Version 1 Estimates. In Global Burden of Disease 2000. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Mathers C, Stein C, Ma Fat D, Rao C, Inoue M, Tomijima N, Bernard C, Lopez A, Murray C. (2002). Global Burden of Disease 2000: Version 2 Methods and Results. GPE Discussion Paper No. 50. WHO, Geneva. Also available at: http://www.who.int./evidence.
- Murray CJL, Lopez AD. (1996a). The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
- Murray CJL, Lopez AD (eds.). (1996b). Global Health Statistics: A Compendium of Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Estimates for over 200 Conditions. (Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, Vol. 2). Harvard School of Public Health, World Health Organization and World Bank, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Murray CJL, Lopez AD, Mathers CD. (2001). The Global Burden of Disease 2000 Project: Aims, Methods and Data Sources. Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy Discussion Paper No. 36. WHO, Geneva. Also available at: http://www.who.int./evidence.
- Peterson S, PetoV, Rayner M, Leal J, Luengo-Fernandey R, Gray A. (2005). European CVD Statistics. BHF, London.Google Scholar
- Rose G. (1992). The Strategy of Preventive Medicine. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
- SBD Study group. (2003). The Burden of Disease and Injury in Serbia. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, pp 63–64. Also available at: http://www.sbds.sr.gov.yu.
- Sipetic S, Vlajinac H, Kocev N, Stosic M, Sljivic M. (2001). Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Belgrade for the Period 1975–1999. I Yugoslav Congress of Aterosclerosis, Belgrade, 178 (abstract).Google Scholar
- Tunstall-Pedoe H, Kuulasmaa K, Mahonen M, Tolenen H, Ruokokoski E, Amouyel P, for the WHO MONICA Project. (1999). Lancet. 353: 1547–1557.Google Scholar
- Vlajinac H, Marinkovic J, Kocev N, Adanja B, Sipetic S, Pekmezovic T, Zivaljevic V. (2000). Serb Arch Med. 128: 309–315.Google Scholar
- World health report. (2004). The World Health Report. WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar