Advertisement

Years of Life Lost from Lung, Stomach, Liver and Cervical Cancers: An Evaluation of the Top Cancer Killers

  • B. Y. Goldstein
  • F. I. Bray
  • D. M. Parkin
  • J. W. Sellors
  • Z. F. Zhang
Reference work entry

Abstract:

Based on  GLOBOCAN 2002 data, lung, stomach, and liver cancers are the top three cancer killers in both sexes worldwide; cervical cancer is the third most common cause of deaths from cancer among women globally and the top cancer killer among women in developing countries. In this evaluation the burden of lung, stomach, liver, and cervical cancers are assessed using the  years of life lost (YLL) measure, which accounts for both the number of deaths and the age at which death occurs. World mortality data for lung, stomach, liver, and cervical cancers was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2002 by region and sex. Poisson regression models were used to interpolate mortality rates by five-year age categories from the broader GLOBOCAN categories. YLLs were calculated using a model with non-uniform age weights and a  discount rate of 3%.

Each year, lung, stomach, liver, and cervical cancers are responsible for a loss of 29.5 million (weighted and discounted) years of life (11 million from lung cancer, 7 million from stomach cancer, 7.5 million from liver cancer, and 4 million from cervical cancer). The age-standardized YLL rate for lung cancer in developed countries is over 1.5 times greater than in developing countries (261 vs. 154 YLL per 100,000 persons per year), while the annual YLL rates in developing countries is greater than developed countries for stomach (129 vs. 94 YLL per 100,000), liver (153 vs. 47 per 100,000), and cervical (162 vs. 55 YLL per 100,000 females) cancers. Given the existence of proven prevention strategies for lung, liver, and cervical cancers, the potential for “saving” years of life is great. Furthermore, prevention is effective and feasible in developing parts of the world, areas where interventions will have the largest impact.

Keywords

Cervical Cancer Liver Cancer Discount Rate Life Table Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

EURO

European Region from the Global Burden of Disease study

GBD

Global Burden of Disease study

HBV

Hepatitis B Virus

HPV

Human Papillomavirus

LEEP

 Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure

SEARO

South Eastern Asian Region from the Global Burden of Disease study

SSA

Sub-Saharan Africa

US

United States

WHO

World Health Organization

WPRO

Western Pacific Region from the Global Burden of Disease study

YLL

Years of Life Lost

References

  1. Anand S, Hanson K. (1997). J Health Econ. 16: 685–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coale A, Guo G. (1989). Popul Index. 55: 613–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dempsey M. (1947). Am Rev Tuberc. 56: 157–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Doll R, Cook P. (1967). Int J Cancer. 2: 269–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ferlay J, Parkin DM, Bray F, Pisani P. (2004). GLOBOCAN 2002: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, Version 1.0. IARC Press, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  6. Haenszel W. (1950). Am J Public Health. 40: 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kohn R. (1951). Can J Public Health. 42: 375–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Mathers CD, Lopez AD, Murray CJ. (2006). In: Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ (ed.) Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. The World Bank and Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp 45–240.Google Scholar
  9. Murray CJ. (1994). Bull World Health Organ. 72: 429–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2004). World Population Prospects (The 2002 Revision). United Nations, http://www.un.org/.
  11. United Nations Statistics Division. (2007). Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings. United Nations, http://unstats.un.org.
  12. World Health Organization. (2004). Revised Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2002 Estimates (from the World Health Report 2004). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  13. World Health Organization. (2007). WHO Mortality Database. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  14. Yang BH, Bray FI, Parkin DM, Sellors JW, Zhang ZF. (2004). Int J Cancer. 109: 418–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Y. Goldstein
  • F. I. Bray
  • D. M. Parkin
  • J. W. Sellors
  • Z. F. Zhang

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations