Economic Evaluation of Health Interventions: Tanzania Perspectives

  • B. Robberstad
  • Yusuf Hemed
Reference work entry


The life expectancy of Tanzania has declined since 1990, and the health care services are facing immense challenges. The two single most important sources of burden of disease in the country are HIV/AIDS and malaria. Cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases are also becoming increasingly important causes of disease burden. This chapter reviews the available  economic evaluation literature for all types of health interventions in Tanzania. Economic evaluation is useful for setting health care priorities when decision makers are concerned about producing as much health benefits as possible within the limits of scarce health care resources.

A total of 23 studies were found reporting costs and benefits for health interventions in Tanzania. The studies included in the review can roughly be sorted into the disease groups malaria, HIV/AIDS, maternal and perinatal health, intestinal parasites and worms, tuberculosis (TB), childhood diseases and cardiovascular disorders. The economic evaluation evidence for Tanzania is generally very scarce. Evidence is relatively good for malaria interventions and interventions against intestinal worms and parasites. Within these disease groups economic evaluation can be particularly useful to inform implementation policy. For all other disease groups, evidence is either vastly insufficient or totally missing. Lack of evidence is particularly striking for treatment and care of patients with HIV/AIDS, and for non-communicable diseases. Economic evaluation can in most cases not be used efficiently and consistently to set health care priorities in Tanzania. More research is needed to improve this situation.


Economic Evaluation Oral Rehydration Solution Economic Evidence Directly Observe Treatment Voucher Scheme 

List of Abbreviations:


acquired immunodeficiency syndrome




adult mortality and morbidity project












burden of disease


calcium channel blocker


cost-effectiveness ratio


commission on macroeconomics and health




disability adjusted life year






directly observed treatment


evacuation by curettage


expanded programme for immunization


gross domestic product


human immunodeficiency virus


 incremental cost-effectiveness ratio


integrated management of childhood illness


insecticide treated bednets


life year


manual vacuum aspiration


National Bureau of Statistics


oral rehydration solution


prevention of mother to child transmission


point of care testing


rapid plasma reagin testing




Sub Saharan Africa




sexually transmitted diseases




Tanzania National Voucher Scheme


United States dollars


voluntary counseling and testing


World Health Organization



We thank Ole Frithjof Norheim and Kjell Arne Johansson for peer review of the manuscript and Julia Norman for proofreading.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Robberstad
  • Yusuf Hemed

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