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Economic Evaluation of Health Interventions: Tanzania Perspectives

  • B. Robberstad
  • Yusuf Hemed
Reference work entry

Abstract:

The life expectancy of Tanzania has declined since 1990, and the health care services are facing immense challenges. The two single most important sources of burden of disease in the country are HIV/AIDS and malaria. Cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases are also becoming increasingly important causes of disease burden. This chapter reviews the available  economic evaluation literature for all types of health interventions in Tanzania. Economic evaluation is useful for setting health care priorities when decision makers are concerned about producing as much health benefits as possible within the limits of scarce health care resources.

A total of 23 studies were found reporting costs and benefits for health interventions in Tanzania. The studies included in the review can roughly be sorted into the disease groups malaria, HIV/AIDS, maternal and perinatal health, intestinal parasites and worms, tuberculosis (TB), childhood diseases and cardiovascular disorders. The economic evaluation evidence for Tanzania is generally very scarce. Evidence is relatively good for malaria interventions and interventions against intestinal worms and parasites. Within these disease groups economic evaluation can be particularly useful to inform implementation policy. For all other disease groups, evidence is either vastly insufficient or totally missing. Lack of evidence is particularly striking for treatment and care of patients with HIV/AIDS, and for non-communicable diseases. Economic evaluation can in most cases not be used efficiently and consistently to set health care priorities in Tanzania. More research is needed to improve this situation.

Keywords

Economic Evaluation Oral Rehydration Solution Economic Evidence Directly Observe Treatment Voucher Scheme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AL

artemether-lumefantrine

AMMP

adult mortality and morbidity project

AQ

amodiaquine

ARV

antiretroviral

AS

artesunate

ASA

aspirin

BET

betablocker

BOD

burden of disease

CAB

calcium channel blocker

CER

cost-effectiveness ratio

CMH

commission on macroeconomics and health

CV

cardiovascular

DALY

disability adjusted life year

DEC

diethylcarbamazine

DIU

diuretic

DOT

directly observed treatment

EbyC

evacuation by curettage

EPI

expanded programme for immunization

GDP

gross domestic product

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

ICER

 incremental cost-effectiveness ratio

IMCI

integrated management of childhood illness

ITN

insecticide treated bednets

LY

life year

MVA

manual vacuum aspiration

NBS

National Bureau of Statistics

ORS

oral rehydration solution

PMTCT

prevention of mother to child transmission

POC

point of care testing

RPR

rapid plasma reagin testing

SP

sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine

SSA

Sub Saharan Africa

STA

statin

STD

sexually transmitted diseases

TB

tuberculosis

TNVS

Tanzania National Voucher Scheme

USD

United States dollars

VCT

voluntary counseling and testing

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Ole Frithjof Norheim and Kjell Arne Johansson for peer review of the manuscript and Julia Norman for proofreading.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Robberstad
  • Yusuf Hemed

There are no affiliations available

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