Advertisement

Cognitive Function, Mood and Health-Related Quality of Life in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Individuals

  • Hla-Hla Thein
  • G. J. Dore
Reference work entry

Abstract:

People with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection commonly experience neuropsychological symptoms, including fatigue, depression, difficulty concentrating, and forgetfulness despite early liver disease. Although there has been limited evaluation of the relationship between symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), chronic HCV infection seems to impair cognitive function and HRQOL even in earlier stages in the absence of severe liver disease. The likelihood of impairment increases with greater severity of liver disease and advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There is evidence that successful antiviral therapy is associated with improvement in both cognitive function and HRQOL. However, the etiology of cognitive and HRQOL impairment in chronic HCV infection remains unclear. Potential explanations for the impairment include direct and indirect viral effects, inability to disentangle the effects of concomitant comorbid conditions including the effects of coinfection with HIV, drug dependency, psychiatric disease, the psychological impact of HCV diagnosis, or poor health. Further research is required to understand the relationship between HCV-related symptoms and HRQOL and to explore causality of cognitive and HRQOL impairment in chronic HCV infection.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy HRQOL Impairment Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HRQOL

health-related quality of life

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

MHE

minimal hepatic encephalopathy

1H MRS

proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

EEG

electroencephalogram

IFN

interferon

HBV

hepatitis B

IVDU

intravenous drug use

ETOH

alcohol

CHO

choline

QOL

quality of life

ALT

alanine aminotransfers

METH

methamphetamine

NAA

N-acetylaspartate

QEEG

quantitative electroencephalogram

PET

positron emission tomography

R

right

L

left

fMRI

functional magnetic resonance imaging

PEGASYS

peginterferon alfa-2a

peg intron

recombinant interferon alpha, subtype 2b, and polyethylene glycol

IDUs

injecting drug users

CNS

central nervous system

PBMCs

peripheral blood mononuclear cells

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor-alpha

ART

antiretroviral therapy

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

5-HT

5-hydroxytryptamine

SF-36

short form-36 health survey

MCS

mental component score

PCS

physical component score

SVR

sustained virological response

CLDQ

chronic liver disease questionnaire

References

  1. Alberti A, Noventa F, Benvegnu L, Boccato S, Gatta A. (2002). Ann Intern Med. 137: 961–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alter MJ. (2002). Hepatology. 36: S93–S98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amodio P, De Toni EN, Cavalletto L, Mapelli D, Bernardinello E, Del Piccolo F, Bergamelli C, Costanzo R, Bergamaschi F, Poma SZ, Chemello L, Gatta A, Perini G. (2005). J Affect Disord. 84: 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arora S, O’Brien C, Zeuzem S, Shiffman ML, Diago M, Tran A, Pockros PJ, Reindollar RW, Gane E, Patel K, Wintfeld N, Green J. (2006). J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 21: 406–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacon BR. (2002). Hepatology. 36: S179–S184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balfour L, Cooper C, Kowal J, Tasca GA, Silverman A, Kane M, Garber G. (2006). Can J Gastroenterol. 20: 81–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barkhuizen A, Rosen HR, Wolf S, Flora K, Benner K, Bennett RM. (1999). Am J Gastroenterol. 94: 1355–1360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrett S, Goh J, Coughlan B, Ryan E, Stewart S, Cockram A, O’Keane JC, Crowe J. (2001). Gut. 49: 423–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayliss MS, Gandek B, Bungay KM, Sugano D, Hsu MA, Ware JE Jr. (1998). Qual Life Res. 7: 39–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernstein D, Kleinman L, Barker CM, Revicki DA, Green J. (2002). Hepatology. 35: 704–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bini E, Baskies M, Achkar J, Maslow M. (2001). DDW Conference. NATAP Reports, Atlanta, Georgia, [Abstract].Google Scholar
  12. Blei AT. (2004). J Hepatol. 40: 327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonkovsky HL, Snow KK, Malet PF, Back-Madruga C, Fontana RJ, Sterling RK, Kulig CC, Di Bisceglie AM, Morgan TR, Dienstag JL, Ghany MG, Gretch DR. (2007). J Hepatol. 46: 420–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonkovsky HL, Woolley JM. (1999). Hepatology. 29: 264–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cacoub P, Renou C, Rosenthal E, Cohen P, Loury I, Loustaud-Ratti V, Yamamoto AM, Camproux AC, Hausfater P, Musset L, Veyssier P, Raguin G, Piette JC. (2000). Medicine. 79: 47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Capuron L, Pagnoni G, Demetrashvili M, Woolwine BJ, Nemeroff CB, Berns GS, Miller AH. (2005). Biol Psychiatry. 58: 190–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carithers RL Jr., Sugano D, Bayliss M. (1996). Dig Dis Sci. 41: 75S–80S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cherner M, Letendre S, Heaton RK, Durelle J, Marquie-Beck J, Gragg B, Grant I. (2005). Neurology. 64: 1343–1347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Clifford DB, Evans SR, Yang Y, Gulick RM. (2005). AIDS. 19(Suppl 3): S64–S71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cordoba J, Flavia M, Jacas C, Sauleda S, Esteban JI, Vargas V, Esteban R, Guardia J. (2003a). J Hepatol. 39: 231–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cordoba J, Raguer N, Flavia M, Vargas V, Jacas C, Alonso J, Rovira A. (2003b). Hepatology. 38: 1026–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coughlan B, Sheehan J, Hickey A, Crowe J. (2002). Br J Health Psychol. 7: 105–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dalgard O, Egeland A, Skaug K, Vilimas K, Steen T. (2004). Hepatology. 39: 74–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dan AA, Martin LM, Crone C, Ong JP, Farmer DW, Wise T, Robbins SC, Younossi ZM. (2006). J Hepatol. 44: 491–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis GL, Balart LA, Schiff ER, Lindsay K, Bodenheimer HC Jr., Perrillo RP, Carey W, Jacobson IM, Payne J, Dienstag JL, et al. (1994). Clin Ther. 16: 334–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis PE, Liddiard H, McMillan TM. (2002). Drug Alcohol Depend. 67: 105–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Di Bisceglie AM. (1998). Lancet. 351: 351–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dwight MM, Kowdley KV, Russo JE, Ciechanowski PS, Larson AM, Katon WJ. (2000). J Psychosom Res. 49: 311–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Eyster ME, Fried MW, Di Bisceglie AM, Goedert JJ. (1994). Blood. 84: 1020–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ferenci P, Lockwood A, Mullen K, Tarter R, Weissenborn K, Blei AT. (2002). Hepatology. 35: 716–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleming CA, Christiansen D, Nunes D, Heeren T, Thornton D, Horsburgh CR Jr., Koziel MJ, Graham C, Craven DE. (2004). Clin Infect Dis. 38: 572–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Flugel A, Bradl M, Kreutzberg GW, Graeber MB. (2001). J Neurosci Res. 66: 74–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fontana RJ, Bieliauskas LA, Back-Madruga C, Lindsay KL, Kronfol Z, Lok AS, Padmanabhan L. (2005). J Hepatol. 43: 614–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fontana RJ, Hussain KB, Schwartz SM, Moyer CA, Su GL, Lok AS. (2002). J Hepatol. 36: 401–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fontana RJ, Moyer CA, Sonnad S, Lok ASF, Sneed-Pee N, Walsh J, Klein S, Webster S. (2001). Am J Gastroenterol. 96: 170–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Forton DM, Allsop JM, Cox IJ, Hamilton G, Wesnes K, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD. (2005). AIDS. 19(Suppl 3): S53–S63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Forton DM, Allsop JM, Main J, Foster GR, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD. (2001). Lancet. 358: 38–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Forton DM, Karayiannis P, Mahmud N, Taylor-Robinson SD, Thomas HC. (2004a). J Virol. 78: 5170–5183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Forton DM, Taylor-Robinson SD, Thomas HC. (2002a). J Hepatol. 36: 435–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Forton DM, Taylor-Robinson SD, Thomas HC. (2003). J Viral Hepat. 10: 81–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Forton DM, Taylor-Robinson SD, Thomas HC. (2006). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 18: 333–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Forton DM, Thomas HC, Murphy CA, Allsop JM, Foster GR, Main J, Wesnes KA, Taylor-Robinson SD. (2002b). Hepatology. 35: 433–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Forton DM, Thomas HC, Taylor-Robinson SD. (2004b). Metab Brain Dis. 19: 383–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Foster GR, Goldin RD, Thomas HC. (1998). Hepatology. 27: 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gallegos-Orozco JF, Fuentes AP, Gerardo Argueta J, Perez-Pruna C, Hinojosa-Becerril C, Sixtos-Alonso MS, Cruz-Castellanos S, Gutierrez-Reyes G, Olivera-Martinez MA, Gutierrez-Ruiz MC, Kershenobich D. (2003). Arch Med Res. 34: 124–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gifford SM, O’Brien ML, Bammer G, Banwell C, Stoove M. (2003). J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 18: 841–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Goh J, Coughlan B, Quinn J, O’Keane JC, Crowe J. (1999). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 11: 833–838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goulding C, O’Connell P, Murray FE. (2001). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 13: 507–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Grant I. (1987). J Consult Clin Psychol. 55: 310–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gualtieri CT, Johnson LG, Benedict KB. (2006). J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 18: 217–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hassanein T, Cooksley G, Sulkowski M, Smith C, Marinos G, Lai MY, Pastore G, Trejo-Estrada R, Horta EVA, Wintfeld N, Green J. (2004). J Hepatol. 40: 675–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hassanein TI, Hilsabeck RC, Hwang S, Medley K, Ziegler BA. (2001). Hepatology. AB1712 [Abstract].Google Scholar
  53. Hauser W, Zimmer C, Schiedermaier P, Grandt D. (2004). Psychosom Med. 66: 954–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Heaton RK, Grant I, Butters N, White DA, Kirson D, Atkinson JH, McCutchan JA, Taylor MJ, Kelly MD, Ellis RJ, et al. (1995). J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1: 231–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hilsabeck RC, Hassanein TI, Carlson MD, Ziegler EA, Perry W. (2003). J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 9: 847–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hilsabeck RC, Hassanein TI, Ziegler EA, Carlson MD, Perry W. (2005). J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 11: 16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hilsabeck RC, Perry W, Hassanein TI (2002). Hepatology. 35: 440–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hinkin CH, van Gorp WG, Mandelkern MA, Gee M, Satz P, Holston S, Marcotte TD, Evans G, Paz DH, Ropchan JR. (1995). J Neuropsychol Clin Neurosci. 7: 180–187.Google Scholar
  59. Hoofnagle JH. (1997). Hepatology. 26: 15S–20S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hui CK, Belaye T, Montegrande K, Wright TL. (2003). J Hepatol. 38: 511–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hunt CM, Dominitz JA, Bute BP, Waters B, Blasi U, Williams DM. (1997). Dig Dis Sci. 42: 2482–2486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hussain KB, Fontana RJ, Moyer CA, Su GL, Sneed-Pee N, Lok AS. (2001). Am J Gastroenterol. 96: 2737–2744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ingraham LJ, Aiken CB. (1996). Neuropsychology. 10: 120–124.Google Scholar
  64. Jamal MM, Soni A, Quinn PG, Wheeler DE, Arora S, Johnston DE. (1999). Hepatology. 30: 1307–1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Johnson ME, Fisher DG, Fenaughty A, Theno SA. (1998). Am J Gastroenterol. 93: 785–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Juengling FD, Ebert D, Gut O, Engelbrecht MA, Rasenack J, Nitzsche EU, Bauer J, Lieb K. (2000). Psychopharmacology. 152: 383–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kallman J, O’Neil MM, Larive B, Boparai N, Calabrese L, Younossi ZM. (2007). Dig Dis Sci. 52: 2531–2539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kamei S, Oga K. Matsuura M, Tanaka N, Kojima T, Arakawa Y, Matsukawa Y, Mizutani T, Sakai T, Ohkubo H, Matsumura H, Moriyama M, Hirayanagi K. (2005). J Clin Neurophysiol. 22: 49–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kamei S, Sakai T, Matsuura M, Tanaka N, Kojima T, Arakawa Y, Matsukawa Y, Mizutani T, Oga K, Ohkubo H, Matsumura H, Hirayanagi K. (2002). Eur Neurol. 48: 102–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kamei S, Tanaka N, Mastuura M, Arakawa Y, Kojima T, Matsukawa Y, Takasu T, Moriyama M. (1999). Acta Neurol Scand. 100: 25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kramer L, Bauer E, Funk G, Hofer H, Jessner W, Steindl-Munda P, Wrba F, Madl C, Gangl A, Ferenci P. (2002). J Hepatol. 37: 349–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kramer L, Hofer H, Bauer E, Funk G, Formann E, Steindl-Munda P, Ferenci P. (2005). AIDS. 19(Suppl 3): S85–S92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kraus MR, Schafer A, Csef H, Scheurlen M, Faller H. (2000). Psychosomatics. 41: 377–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kraus MR, Schafer A, Wissmann S, Reimer P, Scheurlen M. (2005). Clin Pharmacol Ther. 77: 90–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kronfol Z, Remick DG. (2000). Am J Psychiatry. 157: 683–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kyrlagkitsis I, Portmann B, Smith H, O’Grady J, Cramp ME. (2003). Am J Gastroenterol. 98: 1588–1593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lang CA, Battistutta D, Garrett LE, Cooksley WGE, Dunne MP, Macdonald GA. (2003). J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 18: B85 [Abstract].Google Scholar
  78. Laskus T, Radkowski M, Adair DM, Wilkinson J, Scheck AC, Rakela J. (2005). AIDS. 19(Suppl 3): S140–S144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Laskus T, Radkowski M, Bednarska A, Wilkinson J, Adair D, Nowicki M, Nikolopoulou GB, Vargas H, Rakela J. (2002). J Virol. 76: 10064–10068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lawson LJ, Perry VH, Gordon S. (1992). Neuroscience. 48: 405–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Letendre SL, Cherner M, Ellis RJ, Marquie-Beck J, Gragg B, Marcotte T, Heaton RK, McCutchan JA, Grant I. (2005). AIDS. 19(Suppl 3): S72–S78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lieb K, Engelbrecht MA, Gut O, Fiebich BL, Bauer J, Janssen G, Schaefer M. (2006). Eur Psychiatry. 21: 204–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lim JK, Cronkite R, Goldstein MK, Cheung RC. (2006). J Clin Gastroenterol. 40: 528–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Macdonald GA, Garrett LE, Cook MD, Cooksley WG, Dunne MP. (2002). Proceedings of the Third Australasian Conference on Hepatitis C. Melbourne, VIC, [Abstract 50].Google Scholar
  85. Martin EM, Novak RM, Fendrich M, Vassileva J, Gonzalez R, Grbesic S, Nunnally G, Sworowski L. (2004). J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 10: 298–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. McAndrews MP, Farcnik K, Carlen P, Damyanovich A, Mrkonjic M, Jones S, Heathcote EJ. (2005). Hepatology. 41: 801–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. McDonald J, Jayasuriya J, Bindley P, Gonsalvez C, Gluseska S. (2002). J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 17: 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. McHutchison JG, Ware JE Jr., Bayliss MS, Pianko S, Albrecht JK, Cort S, Yang I, Neary MP. (2001). J Hepatol. 34: 140–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. McSweeny AJ, Grant I, Heaton RK, Prigatano GP, Adams KM. (1985). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 7: 281–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Miller ER, Hiller JE, Shaw DR. (2001). Aust N Z J Public Health. 25: 355–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Neary MP, Cort S, Bayliss MS, Ware JE Jr. (1999). Semin Liver Dis. 19(Suppl 1): 77–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Obhrai J, Hall Y, Anand BS. (2001). J Clin Gastroenterol. 32: 413–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Paterson DL, Gayowski T, Wannstedt CF, Wagener MM, Marino IR, Vargas H, Laskus T, Rakela J, Singh N. (2000). Clin Transplant. 14: 48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Perry W, Carlson MD, Barakat F, Hilsabeck RC, Schiehser DM, Mathews C, Hassanein TI. (2005). AIDS. 19(Suppl 3): S79–S84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Perry W, Hilsabeck RC, Hassanein TI. (2008). Dig Dis Sci. 53: 307–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Picton TW. (1992). J Clin Neurophysiol. 9: 456–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Pojoga C, Dumitrascu DL, Pascu O, Grigorescu M, Radu C, Damian D. (2004). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 16: 27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Poutiainen E, Hokkanen L, Niemi ML, Farkkila M. (1994). Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 47: 901–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Poynard T, Cacoub P, Ratziu V, Myers RP, Dezailles MH, Mercadier A, Ghillani P, Charlotte F, Piette JC, Moussalli J. (2002). J Viral Hepat. 9: 295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Radkowski M, Wilkinson J, Nowicki M, Adair D, Vargas H, Ingui C, Rakela J, Laskus T. (2002). J Virol. 76: 600–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rasenack J, Zeuzem S, Feinman SV, Heathcote EJ, Manns M, Yoshida EM, Swain MG, Gane E, Diago M, Revicki DA, Lin A, Wintfeld N, Green J. (2003). Pharmacoeconomics. 21: 341–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Reichenberg A, Gorman JM, Dieterich DT. (2005). AIDS. 19(Suppl 3): S174–S178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Richardson JL, Nowicki M, Danley K, Martin EM, Cohen MH, Gonzalez R, Vassileva J, Levine AM. (2005). AIDS. 19: 1659–1667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Riedel WJ, Klaassen T, Schmitt JA. (2002). Brain Behav Immun. 16: 581–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rodger AJ, Jolley D, Thompson SC, Lanigan A, Crofts N. (1999). Hepatology. 30: 1299–1301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rogers RD, Robbins TW. (2001). Curr Opin Neurobiol. 11: 250–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rowan PJ, Al-Jurdi R, Tavakoli-Tabasi S, Kunik ME, Satrom SL, El-Serag HB. (2005). J Clin Gastroenterol. 39: 731–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ryan EL, Morgello S, Isaacs K, Naseer M, Gerits P. (2004). Neurology. 62: 957–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sansonno D, Iacobelli AR, Cornacchiulo V, Iodice G, Dammacco F. (1996). Clin Exp Immunol. 103: 414–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schwarzinger M, Dewedar S, Rekacewicz C, Abd Elaziz KM, Fontanet A, Carrat F, Mohamed MK. (2004). Hepatology. 40: 1434–1441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Selnes OA, McArthur JC, Royal W 3rd, Updike ML, Nance-Sproson T, Concha M, Gordon B, Solomon L, Vlahov D. (1992). Neurology. 42: 1924–1930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Shawcross DL, Davies NA, Williams R, Jalan R. (2004). J Hepatol. 40: 247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sherman KE, Rouster SD, Chung RT, Rajicic N. (2002). Clin Infect Dis. 34: 831–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Shibata M, Blatteis CM. (1991). Brain Res. 562: 323–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Spiegel BM, Younossi ZM, Hays RD, Revicki D, Robbins S, Kanwal F. (2005). Hepatology. 41: 790–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sulkowski MS, Thomas DL. (2003). Ann Intern Med. 138: 197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tarter RE, Hegedus AM, Van Thiel DH, Schade RR, Gavaler JS, Starzl TE. (1984). Gastroenterology. 86: 1421–1427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tassopoulos NC. (1999). J Hepatol. 31: 193–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Taylor MJ, Letendre SL, Schweinsburg BC, Alhassoon OM, Brown GG, Gongvatana A, Grant I. (2004). J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 10: 110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Thein HH, Butler T, Krahn M, Rawlinson W, Levy MH, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ. (2006). J Urban Health. 83: 275–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Thein HH, Maruff P, Krahn MD, Kaldor JM, Koorey DJ, Brew BJ, Dore GJ. (2007). HIV Med. 8: 520–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Thomas HC, Torok ME, Forton DM, Taylor-Robinson SD. (1999). J Hepatol. 31(Suppl 1): 152–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. von Giesen HJ, Heintges T, Abbasi-Boroudjeni N, Kucukkoylu S, Koller H, Haslinger BA, Oette M, Arendt G. (2004). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 35: 131–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. von Wagner M, Lee JH, Kronenberger B, Friedl R, Sarrazin C, Teuber G, Herrmann E, Zeuzem S. (2006). J Viral Hepat. 13: 828–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Ware JE Jr., Bayliss MS, Mannocchia M, Davis GL. (1999). Hepatology. 30: 550–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Weissenborn K, Krause J, Bokemeyer M, Hecker H, Schuler A, Ennen JC, Ahl B, Manns MP, Boker KW. (2004). J Hepatol. 41: 845–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Yates WR, Gleason O. (1998). Depress Anxiety. 7: 188–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Younossi ZM, Boparai N, McCormick M, Price LL, Guyatt G. (2001a). Am J Gastroenterol. 96: 579–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Younossi ZM, Boparai N, Price LL, Kiwi ML, McCormick M, Guyatt G. (2001b). Am J Gastroenterol. 96: 2199–2205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Younossi ZM, Guyatt G, Kiwi M, Boparai N, King D. (1999). Gut. 45: 295–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Zdilar D, Franco-Bronson K, Buchler N, Locala JA, Younossi ZM. (2000). Hepatology. 31: 1207–1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hla-Hla Thein
  • G. J. Dore

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations