Quality of Life in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: Effect of Treatment with Cytokine Therapy and Targeted Agents

  • S. Shah
  • K. Gondek
Reference work entry


Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer and its’ incidence is increasing steadily worldwide. Due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease it is often diagnosed in advanced stages and treatment options have been limited. Symptoms of the advanced disease along with side-effects of available treatment options can greatly affect a patients’ everyday living. The goal of therapeutic interventions in such advanced diseases is not only to increase survival but maintain or improve  quality of life and functioning.

Cytokine therapy has been effective in only a select group of patients and has been associated with poor quality of life. A review of literature on quality of life in patients in advanced RCC treated with cytokine therapy revealed the use of cytokine therapy was associated with decrease in overall quality of life. Also a comparison of quality of life of patients treated with cytokine therapy with general population showed that patients treated with cytokine therapy had lower quality of life. Limited efficacy of cytokine therapies along with deterioration in QoL has led to use of these drugs in only select population.

 Targeted agents such as sorafenib and sunitinib have improved efficacy. In addition these agents have an overall better QoL and improved kidney-cancer symptoms and concerns as compared to interferon. Another targeted agent temsirolimus had significantly greater quality-adjusted survival than interferon.

The current trend in the management of advanced renal cell carcinoma is the utilization of these targeted agents either alone or in combination with other agents. Targeted agents have shown efficacy and safety, and maintenance or improvement of quality of life in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Overall Survival Renal Cell Carcinoma Objective Response Rate Kidney Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:


 complete response


European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30


EuroQoL-5 Dimensions


functional assessment of cancer therapy


functional assessment of cancer therapy – biologic response modifier


functional assessment of cancer therapy –, general


functional assessment of cancer therapy – kidney symptom index


health related quality of life






 mammalian target of rapamycin


 overall response rate


 overall survival


platelet driven  growth factor


 progression free survival


 partial response


patient reported outcomes


quality of life


quality-adjusted time without symptoms and toxicity


renal cell carcinoma


response rate


Short Form-12 Health Survey


Short Form-36 Health Survey


time without symptoms and toxicity


United States


vascular endothelial growth factor


von Hippel-Lindau gene


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Shah
    • 1
  • K. Gondek
    • 1
  1. 1.Global Health Economics, Outcomes and ReimbursementBayer HealthCare PharmaceuticalsMontvilleUSA

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