Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients: An Overview of the Literature

  • A. Montazeri


Quality of life in patients with breast cancer is an important outcome. This chapter presents an overview of the literature on the topic ranging from descriptive findings to clinical trials. There is quite an extensive body of the literature on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Studies on quality of life in breast cancer have made a considerable contribution in improving breast cancer care, although their exact benefit is hard to define. Quality of life data in breast cancer patients provided scientific evidence for clinical decision-making and conveyed helpful information concerning breast cancer patients’ experiences during the course of the disease diagnosis, treatment, disease-free survival time, and recurrences; otherwise finding solutions for evidence-based selection of optimal treatments, psychosocial interventions, patient–physician communications, allocation of resources, and indicating research priorities were impossible. More qualitative research is needed for a better understanding of the topic. In addition, issues related to the disease, its treatment side effects and symptoms, and sexual functioning should receive more attention when studying quality of life in breast cancer patients.


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Patient Body Image Advanced Breast Cancer Sexual Functioning 

List of Abbreviations:




axillary lymph node dissection




breast cancer prevention trial eight symptom scale


BCPT symptom checklist


breast cancer chemotherapy questionnaire


breast conservation surgery


body image


body image after breast cancer questionnaire




cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin






European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer breast cancer specific quality of life questionnaire






functional assessment of cancer therapy breast cancer specific questionnaire


impact of arm morbidity subscale for FACT-B

FACT-B-plus ES

an endocrine symptom subscale for the FACT-B


functional assessment of cancer therapy-general


Fallowfield’s sexual activity questionnaire


future perspective


granulocyte colony stimulating factor


hospital anxiety and depression scale


linear analogue self-assessment


life satisfaction questionnaire






modified radical mastectomy


post-traumatic distress disorder


quality of life in adult cancer survivors


quality of life


Rotterdam symptom checklist


sexual enjoyment


sexual functioning


medical outcomes study short form survey


satisfaction with life domains scale for breast cancer


sentinel lymph node biopsy






  1. Ahles TA, Saykin AJ, Furstenberg CT, Cole B, Mott LA, Ttius-Ernstoff L, Skalla K, Bakitas M, Silberfarb PM. (2005). J Clin Oncol. 23: 4399–4405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amir M, Ramati A. (2002). J Anxiety Disord. 16: 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoni MH, Lechner SC, Kazi A, Wimberly SR, Sifre T, Urcuyo KR, Phillips K, Gluck S, Carver CS. (2006). J Consult Clin Psychol. 74: 1143–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arndt V, Stegmaier C, Ziegler H, Brenner H. (2006). Cancer. 107: 2496–2503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashing-Giwa K. (1999). J Psychosoc Oncol. 17: 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkins L, Fallowfield LJ. (2007). Menopause Int. 13: 103–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avis NE, Crawford S, Manuel J. (2005). J Clin Oncol. 23: 3322–3330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Avis NE, Foley KL. (2006). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 4: 92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Badger TA, Braden CJ, Mishel MH, Longman A. (2004). Res Nurs Health. 27: 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baucom DH, Porter LS, Kiby JS, Gremore TM, Keefe FJ. (2006). Breast Dis. 23: 103–113.Google Scholar
  11. Baxter NN, Goodwin PJ, Mcleod RS, Dion R, Devins G, Bombardier C. (2006). Breast J. 12: 221–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beaulac SM, McNair LA, Scott TE, LaMorte WW, Kavanah MT. (2002). Arch Surg. 137: 1253–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beckjord E, Campas BE. (2007). J Psychosoc Oncol. 25: 19–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernhard J, Zahrieh D, Coates AS, Gelber R, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Murray E, Forbes JF, Perey L, Collins J, Snyder R, Rudenstam CM, Crivellari D, Veronesi A, Thurlimann B, Fey MF, Price KN, Goldhirsch A, Hurny C. (2004). Br J Cancer. 91: 1893–1901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloom JR, Stewart SL, Johnston M, Banks P. (1998). Psycho-Oncol. 7: 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bordeleau L, Szalai JP, Ennis M, Leszcz M, Speca M, Sela R, Doll R, Chochinov HM, Navarro M, Arnold A, Pritchard KI, Bezjak A, Liewellyn-Thomas HA, Sawka CA, Goodwin PJ. (2003). J Clin Oncol. 21: 1944–1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bottomley A, Biganzoli L, Cufer T, Coleman RE, Coens C, Efficace F, Calvert HA, Gamucci T, Twelves C, Fargeot P, Piccart M. (2004). J Clin Oncol. 22: 257–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bottomley A, Therasse P. (2002). Lancet Oncol. 3: 620–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bottomley A, Therasse P, Piccart M, Efficace F, Coens C, Gotay C, Welnicka-Jaskiewicz M, Mauriac L, Dyczka J, Cufer T, Lichinitser MR, Schornagel JH, Bonnefoi H, Shepherd L. (2005). Lancet Oncol. 6: 287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bower JE, Ganz PA, Desmond KA, Rowland JH, Meyetowitz BE, Belin TR. (2000). J Clin Oncol. 18: 743–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brady MJ, Cella DF, Mo F, Bonomi AE, Tulsky DS, Lloyd SR, Deasy S, Cobleigh M, Shiomoto G. (1997). J Clin Oncol. 15: 974–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Burckhardt CS, Carol S, Jones KD. (2005). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 3: 30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Byar KL, Berger AM, Bakken SL, Cetak MA. (2006). Oncol Nurs Forum. 33: E18–E26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Caffo O, Amichetti M, Ferro A, Lucenti A, Valduga F, Galligioni E. (2003). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 80: 39–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carlsson M, Hamrin E. (1996). Qual Life Res. 5: 265–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carpenter JS. (2001). J Pain Symptom Manag. 22: 979–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carpenter JS, Andrykowski MA, Cordova M, Cunningham L, Studts J, McGrath P, Kenady D, Sloan D, Munn R. (1998). Cancer. 82: 1682–1691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cella D, Fallowfield L, Barker P, Cuzick J, Locker G, Howell A. (2006). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 100: 273–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cella D, Fallowfield LJ. (2008). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 107: 167–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cella D, Land SR, Chang CH, Day R, Costantino JP, Wolmark N, Ganz PA. (2008). Breast Cancer Research Treat. 109: 515–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chie WC, Chang KJ, Huang CS, Kuo WH. (2003). Psychooncology. 12: 729–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coates A, Gebski V, Bishop JF, Jeal PN, Woods RL, Snyder R, Tattersall MH, Byrne M, Harvey V, Gill G. (1987). N Engl J Med. 317: 1490–1495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Coates A, Gebski V, Signorini D, Murray P, McNeil D, Byne M, Forbes JF. (1992). J Clin Oncol. 10: 1833–1838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Coates AS, Hurny C, Peterson HF, Bernhard J, Castinglione-Gertsch M, Gelberg D, Goldhirsch A. (2000). J Clin Oncol. 18: 3768–3774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Conde DM, Pinto-Neto AM, Cabello C, Santos-Sa D, Costa-Paiva L, Martinze EZ. (2005). Menopause. 12: 436–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Costanzo ES, Lutgendorf SK, Mattes ML, Trehan S, Robinson CB, Tewfik F, Roman SL. (2007). Br J Cancer. 97: 1625–1631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Coster S, Poole K, Fallowfield LJ. (2001). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 68: 273–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cotton SP, Levine EG, Fitzpatrick CM, Dold KH, Targ E. (1999). Psychooncology. 8: 429–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. de Haes H, Olschewski M, Kaufmann M, Schumacher M, Jonat W, Sauerbrei W. (2003). J Clin Oncol. 21: 4510–4516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Haes JC, Olschewski M. (1998). Ann Oncol. 9: 745–750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Deshields T, Tibbs T, Fan MY, Bayer L, Taylor M, Fisher E. (2005). Support Care Cancer. 13: 1018–1026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dorval M, Maunsell E, Deschenes L, Brisson J, Masse B. (1998). J Clin Oncol. 16: 487–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Efficace F, Biganzoli L, Piccart M, Coens C, van Steen K, Cufer T, Coleman RE, Calvert HA, Gamucci T, Twelves C, Fargeot P, Bottomley A. (2004a). Eur J Cancer. 40: 1021–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Efficace F, Therasse P, Piccart MJ, Coens C, van Steen K, Welnicka-Jaskiewicz M, Cufer T, Dyczka J, Lichinitser M, Shepherd L, de Haes H, Srangers MA, Bottomley A. (2004b). J Clin Oncol. 22: 3381–3388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Elder EE, Brandberg Y, Bjorklund T, Rylander R, Lagergren J, Jurell G, Wickman M, Sandelin K. (2005). Breast. 14: 201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Engel J, Kerr J, Schlesinger-Raab A, Sauer H, Halzel D. (2004). Breast J. 10: 223–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Engel J, Kerr J, Schlesinger-Raab A, Sauer H, Holzel D. (2003). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 79: 47–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fallowfield L, Cella D, Cuzick J, Francis S, Locker G, Howll A. (2004). J Clin Oncol. 22: 4261–4271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fallowfield LJ, Bliss JM, Porter LS, Price MH, Snowdon CF, Jones SE, Coobes RC, Hall E. (2006). J Clin Oncol. 24: 910–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fallowfield LJ, Leaity SK, Howell A, Benson S, Cella D. (1999). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 55: 189–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fleissig A, Fallowfield LJ, Langridge CI, Johnson L, Newcombe RG, Dixon JM, Kissin M, Mansel RE. (2006). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 95: 279–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fortner BV, Stepanski EJ, Wang SC, Kasprowicz S, Durrence H. (2002). J Pain Symptom Manag. 24: 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fossati R, Confalonieri C, Mosconi P, Pistotti V, Apolone G. (2004). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 87: 233–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fraser SCA, Ramirez AJ, Ebbes SR, Fallowfield LJ, Dobbs HJ, Richards MA, Bates T, Baum M. (1993). Br J Cancer. 67: 341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Galalae RM, Michel J, Siebmann JU, Kuchler T, Eilf K, Kimmig B. (2005). Strahlenther Onkol (Strahlentherapie und Onkologie). 181: 645–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ganz PA, coscarelli A, Fred C, Kahn B, Polinsky ML, Petersen L. (1996). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 38: 183–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ganz PA, Goodwin PJ. (2005). In: Lipscomb J, Gotay CC, Snyder C (ed.) Outcomes Assessment in Cancer: Measures, Methods, and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 93–125.Google Scholar
  58. Ganz PA, Guadagnoli E, Landdrum MB, Lash TL, Rakowski W, Silliman RA. (2003). J Clin Oncol. 21: 4027–4033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ganz PA, Kwan L, Stanton AL, Krupnick JL, Rowland JH, Meyerowitz BE, Bower JE, Belin TR. (2004). J Natl Cancer Inst. 96: 376–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ganz PA, Rowland JH, Desmond K, Meyerowitz BE, Wyatt GE. (1998). J Clin Oncol. 16: 501–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Girotto JA, Schreiber J, Nahabedian MY. (2003). Ann Plast Surg. 50: 572–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Golden-Kreutz DM, Thornton LM, Wells-Di GS, Frierson GM, Jim HS, Carpenter KM, Shelby RA, Andersen BL. (2005). Health Psychol. 24: 288–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Goodwin PJ, Black JT, Bordeleau LJ, Ganz PA. (2003). J Natl Cancer Inst. 95: 263–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Bordeleau LJ, Pritchard KT, Trudeau Me, Koo J, Hood N. (2004). J Clin Oncol. 22: 4184–4192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grabsch B, Clarke DM, Love A, McKenzie DP, Snyder RD, Bloch S, Smith G, Kissane DW. (2006). Palliat Support Care. 4: 47–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Grimison PS, Stockler M. (2007). Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 7: 1123–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Groenvold M, Petersen MA, Idler E, Bjorner JB, Fayers PM, Mouridsen HT. (2007). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 105: 209–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gupta P, Sturdee DW, Pallin SL, Majumder K, Fear R, Marshall T, Paterson I. (2006). Climacteric. 9: 49–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hann DM, Garovoy N, Finkelstein B, Jacobsen PB, Azzarello LM, Fields KK. (1999). J Pain Symptom Manage. 17: 313–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hann DM, Jacobson P, Martin S. (1998). J Clin Psychol Med S. 5: 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Heidrich SM, Egan JJ, Hengudomsub P, Randolph SM. (2006). Oncol Nurs Forum. 33: 315–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hopwood P, Haviland J, Mills J, Sumo G, Bliss MJ. (2007). Breast. 16: 241–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Irwig L, Bennetts A. (1997). Aust N Z J Surg. 67: 750–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Janni W, Rjosk D, Dimpfl T, Haertl K, Strobl B, Hepp F, Hanke A, Bergauer F, Sommer H. (2001). Ann Surg Oncol. 8: 542–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Janz NK, Mujahid M, Chung LK, Lantz PM, Hawley ST, Morrow M, Schwartz K, Katz SJ. (2007). J Women’s Health. 16: 1348–1361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Karamouzis MV, Ioannidis G, Rigatos G. (2007). Eur J Cancer Care. 16: 433–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kenne Sarenmalm E, Ohlen J, Oden A, Gaston-Johansson F. (2007). J Pain Symptom Manage. 34: 24–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kenne Sarenmalm E, Ohlen J, Oden A, Gaston-Johansson F. (2008). Psychooncology. 17: 497–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kenny P, King MT, Sheill A, Seymour J, Hall J, Langlsnds A, Boyages J. (2000). Breast. 9: 37–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kershaw T, Northouse L, kritpracha C, Schafenacker A, Mood D. (2004). Psychol Health. 19: 139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kiebert GM, Hanneke J, de Haes CJ, Kievit J, van de Velde CJ. (1990). Eur J Cancer. 26: 1038–1042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. King MT, Kenny P, Shiell A, Hall J, Boyages J. (2000). Qual Life Res. 9: 789–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kissane DW, Clarke DM, Ikin J, Bloch S, Smith GC, Vietta L, McKenzie DP. (1998). Med J Aust. 169: 192–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Knapp J. (1997). J Gynecol Oncol Nurs. 7: 37–40.Google Scholar
  85. Kramer JA, Curran D, Piccart M, de Haes JC, Bruning PF, Klijn JG, Bontenbal M, van Pottelsberghe C, Groenvold M, Paridaens R. (2000a). Eur J Cancer. 36: 1488–1497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kramer JA, Curran D, Piccart M, de Haes JC, Bruning PF, Klijn JG, van Hoorebeeck I, Paridaens R. (2000b). Eur J Cancer. 36: 1498–1506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kuehn T, Klauss W, Darsow M, Regele S, Flock F, Maiterth C, Dahlbender R, Wendt I, Kreienberg R. (2000). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 64: 275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kwan W, Jackson J, Weir LM, Dingee C, McGregor G, Olivotto IA. (2002). J Clin Oncol. 20: 4242–4248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Land SR, Kopec JA, Yothers G, Anderson S, Day R, Tang G, Ganz PA, Fisher B, Wolmark N. (2004). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 86: 153–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Land SR, Wickerham DL, Costantino JP, Ritter MW, Vogel VG, Lee MK, Pajon ER, Wade JL III, Dakhil S, Lockhart JB, Wolmark N, Ganz PA. (2006). JAMA. 295: 2742–2751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lee EH, Chun M, Kang S, Lee HJ. (2004). Jap J Clin Oncol. 34: 393–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lehto US, Ojanen M, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P. (2005). Annal Oncol. 16: 805–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lemieux J, Maunsell E, Provencher L. (2008). Psychooncology. 17: 317–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Levine MN, Guyatt GH, Gent M, De Pauw S, Goodyear MD, Hryniuk WM, Arnold A, Findlay B, Skillings JR, Bramwell VH. (1988). J Clin Oncol. 6: 1798–1810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lewis JA, Manne SL, DuHamel KN, Vickburg SMJ, Bovjerg DH, Currie V, Winkel G, Redd WH. (2001). J Behav Med. 24: 231–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Longman AJ, Braden CJ, Mishel MH. (1999). Oncol Nurs Forum. 26: 909–915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Luoma ML, Hakamies-Blomqvist L, Sjostrom J, Pluzanska A, Ottoson S, Mouridsen H, Bengtsson NO, Bergh J, Malmstrom P, Valvere V, Tennvall L, Blomqvist C. (2003). Eur J Cancer. 39: 1370–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Makar K, Cumming CE, Lees AW, Hundleby M, Nabholtz J, Kieren DK, Jenkins H, Wentzel C, Handman M, Cumming DC. (1997). Can J Hum Sex. 6: 1–8.Google Scholar
  99. Malinovszky KM, Gould A, Foster E, Cameron D, Humphreys A, Crown J, Leonard RC. (2006). Br J Cancer. 95: 1626–1631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mandelblatt J, Armetta C, Yabroff KR, Liang W, Lawreence W. (2004). J Natl Cancer Inst Monographs. 33: 8–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Marsden J, Baum M, A’Hern R, West A, Fallowfield L, Whitehead M, Sacks N. (2001). Br J Menopause Soc. 7: 85–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martin M, Lluch A, Segui MA, Ruzi A, Ramos M, adrover E, Rodriguez-Lescure A, Grosse R, Calvo L, Fernandez-Chacon C, Roset M, Anton A, Isla D, del Prado PM, Iglesias L, Zaluski J, Arcusa A, Lopez-Vega JM, Munoz M, Mel JR. (2006). Annal Oncol. 17: 1205–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Massacesi C, Sabbatini E, Rocchi MB, Zepponi L, Rossini S, Pilone A, Burattini L, Pezzoli M. (2006). Am J Cancer. 5: 433–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mehnert A, Scherwatch A, Schirmer L, Schleimer B, Petersen C, Schulz-Kindermann F, Zander AR, Koch U. (2007). Patient Educ Couns. 66: 108–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Meneses KD, McNees P, Loerzel VW, Su X, Zhang Y, Hassey LA. (2007). Oncol Nurs Forum. 34: 1007–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mills PJ, Parker B, Dimsdale JE, Sadler GR, Ancoli-Israel S. (2005). Biol Psychol. 69: 85–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mols F, Vingerthoets AJ, Coebergh JW, van de Poll-Franse LV. (2005). Eur J Cancer. 41: 2613–2619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Montazeri A, Gillis CR, McEwen J. (1996a). Eur J Cancer Care. 5: 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Montazeri A, Gillis CR, McEwen J. (1996b). Eur J Cancer Care. 5: 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Montazeri A, Harirchi I, Vahdani M, Khaleghi F, Jarvandi S, Ebrahimi M, Haji-Mahmoodi M. (2000). Qual Life Res. 9: 177–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Montazeri A, Milroy R, Hole D, McEwen J, Gillis CR. (2001). Lung Cancer. 31: 233–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Moore FD, van de Vanter SB, Boyden CM, Lokich J, Wilson RE. (1974). Surgery. 76: 376–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Nissen MJ, Swenson KK, Ritz LJ, Farrell JB, Sladek ML, Lally RM. (2001). Cancer. 91: 1238–1246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Okamura M, Yamavaki S, Akechi T, Taniguchi K, Uchitomi Y. (2005). Jpn J Clin Oncol. 35: 302–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Osoba D, Slamon DJ, Burchmore M, Murphy M. (2002). J Clin Oncol. 20: 3106–3113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Palmer BV, Walsh GA, McKinna JA, Greening WP. (1980). Br Med J. 281: 1594–1597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pandey M, Thomas BC, Ramdas K, Eremenco S, Nair K. (2002). Qual Life Res. 11: 87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pandey M, Thomas BC, Ramdas K, Ratheesan K. (2006). Jpn J Clin Oncol. 36: 468–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Parker PA, Youssef A, Walker S, Basen-Engguist K, Cohen L, Gritz ER, Wei QX, Robb SL. (2007). Ann Surg Oncol. 14: 3035–3036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Payne R, Medina E, Hampton JW. (2003). Cancer. 97 (Suppl. 1): 311–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Perry S, Kowalski TL, Chang CH. (2007). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 5: 24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Priestman TJ, Baum M. (1976). Lancet. i: 899–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pyszel A, Malyszezak K, Pyszel K, Andrzejak R, Szuba A. (2006). Lymphology. 39: 185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Reich M, Lesur A, Perdrizet-Chevallier C. (2008). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 110: 9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Richardson LC, Wang W, Hartzema AG, Wanger S. (2007). Breast J. 13: 581–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ridner SH. (2005). Support Care Cancer. 13: 904–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rietman J, Dijkstra P, Debreczeni R, Geertzen J, Robinson D, de Vries J. (2004). Disabil Rehabil. 26: 78–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rietman JS, Dijkstra PU, Hoekstra HJ, Eisma WH, Szabo BG, Groothoff JW, Geertzen JH. (2003). Eur J Surg Oncol. 29: 229–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rietman JS, Geertzen JH, Hoekstra HJ, Baas P, Dolsma WV, de Vries J, Groothoff JW, Eisma WH, Dijkstra PU. (2006). Eur J Surg Oncol. 32: 148–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Roth RS, Lowery JC, Davis J, Wilkins E. (2005). Plast Reconstr Surg. 116: 993–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schou I, Ekeberg O, Sandvik L, Hjermstad MJ, Ruland CM. (2005). Qual Life Res. 14: 1813–1823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schreier AM, Williams SA. (2004). Oncol Nurs Forum. 31: 127–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schults PN, Klein MJ, Beck ML, Stava C, Sellin RV. (2005). J Clin Nurs. 14: 204–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Seidman AD, Portenoy R, Yao TJ, Lepore J, Mont EK, Kortmansky J, Onetto N, Ren L, Grechko J, Beltangady M. (1995). J Natl Cancer Inst. 187: 1316–1322.Google Scholar
  135. Shimozuma K, Okamoto T, Katsumata N, Koike M, Tanaka K, Osumi S, Saito M, Shikama N, Watanabe T, Mitsumori M, Yamauchi C, Hisashige A. (2002). Breast Cancer. 9: 196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Shimozuma K, Sonoo H, Ichihara K, Tanaka K. (2000). Surg Today. 30: 255–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Spagnola S, Zabora J, BrintzenhofeSzoc K, Hooker C, Cohen G, Baker F. (2003). Breast J. 9: 463–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Spiegel D. (1997). Semin Oncol. 24 (Suppl. 1): S36–S47.Google Scholar
  139. Spiegel D. (2001). J Psychosom Res. 50: 287–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sprangers MAG, Groenvold M, Arraras JI, Franklin J, te Velde A, Muller M, Franzini L, Williams A, de Haes HC, Hopwood P, Cull A, Aaronson NK. (1996). J Clin Oncol. 14: 2756–2768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Stein KD, Jacobsen PB, Hann DM, Greenberg H, Lyman G. (2000). J Pain Symptom Manage. 19: 436–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Stewart BW, Paul Kleihues P. (2003). World Cancer Report. International Agency Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  143. Velanovich V, Szymanski W. (1999). Am J Surg. 177: 184–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wan C, Tang X, Tu XM, Feng C, Messing S, Meng Q, Zhang X. (2007b). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 105: 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wan C, Zhang D, Yang Z, Tu X, Tang W, Feng C, Wang H, Tang X. (2007a). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 106: 413–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wonghongkul T, Dechaprom N, Phumivichuvate L, Losawatkul S. (2006). Cancer Nurs. 29: 250–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yen JY, Ko CH, Yen CF, Yang MJ, Wu CY, Juan CH, Hou MF. (2006). Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 60: 147–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Yun YH, Bae SH, Kang IO, Shin KH, Lee R, Kwon SI, Park YS, Lee ES. (2004). Support Care Cancer. 12: 441–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Montazeri
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor in Public Health and EpidemiologyIranian Institute for Health Sciences Research (IHSR)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations