Quality of Life Measures During the Menopause

  • G. D. Mishra
  • D. Kuh
Reference work entry


Menopause usually occurs sometime between 40–60 years and marks the end of the reproductive phase of a woman’s life. The menopausal transition is associated with a wide range of symptoms, such as hot flushes and cold night sweats. However, the full impact on women’s lives is difficult to disentangle from other concomitant changes, such as declining health, children leaving home, and the birth of grand children. Thus it is essential that researchers are able to use reliable and accurate instruments for assessing  health related quality of life (HRQOL) and preferably ones that permit comparisons prior to, during, and after menopausal transition, as well as across populations.

Over the last three decades, numerous instruments have been developed to measure HRQOL during menopause, from simple checklists of symptoms to wide-ranging questions across several domains of psychosocial well-being. This review finds that although they all report good psychometric properties and are well documented, no single instrument has become pre-eminent in the field. The process of development is likely to continue since none of the instruments have met all the outstanding measurement issues, such as including questions for women on HRT or those using complementary and alternative medicine. It is hoped that as new scales evolve, these will exhibit a greater degree of convergence and compatibility.

Researchers should consider the benefits of using generic well-established measures of HRQOL and checklists of menopausal symptoms, with additional items used in a way that preserves compatibility. A robust and reliable instrument remains a highly worthwhile aspiration, since any findings, such as identifying successful management or coping strategies, would provide potentially invaluable information to communicate to women everywhere and help them prepare for this stage of life.


Hormone Replacement Therapy Vasomotor Symptom Menopausal Transition Menopause Rate Scale Greene Climacteric Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:


complementary and alternative medicine


health related quality of life


hormone replacement therapy


menopause-specific HRQOL questionnaire


menopausal quality of life scale


menopause-specific HRQOL questionnaire


 quality of life


short form 12


short form 36


Utian quality of life instrument


visual analogue scale


women’s health questionnaire


World Health Organization quality of life-brief


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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. D. Mishra
  • D. Kuh

There are no affiliations available

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