Quality of Life in Men with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

  • D. A. Tripp
  • J. C. Nickel
Reference work entry


Chronic  Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain  Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is considered a prevalent urological condition, which has proven difficult to manage and has become extremely frustrating not only for patients, but also for physicians. Genitourinary and pelvic pain is the cardinal symptom of CP/CPPS and is strongly associated with intra and interpersonal difficulties reported across patient age cohorts. Microorganisms, inflammation and urinary symptoms have historically been  biomedical targets of treatment in prostatitis and CP/CPPS. Unfortunately, the biomedical model of CP/CPPS has advanced no cure and clinicians are considering CP/CPPS as a syndrome where symptom management is a primary concern. Recent reviews of psychosocial factors (i.e., personality, depression, anxiety) in CP/CPPS indicate robust associations with poorer Quality of Life (QOL). Further, urological researchers and clinicians alike suggest that a  biopsychosocial model for CP/CPPS is necessary. A biopsychosocial model of QOL requires that physical and psychosocial treatment options be examined for CP/CPPS. This chapter avoids repetition of recent CP/CPPS and QOL reviews by focusing on late breaking developments and novel trends in the CP/CPPS QOL literature. For example, recent biopsychosocial CP/CPPS research is reviewed showing catastrophizing to be a better predictor of CP/CPPS outcomes over other factors like urinary status and depression. As well, emerging data on adolescent CP/CPPS and QOL will be reviewed. Finally, a review of the race/ethnicity data and CP/CPPS QOL is offered. Comments on future QOL research and biopsychosocial treatment models are also provided.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pain Catastrophizing Biopsychosocial Model Pelvic Pain Syndrome North American Sample 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:


chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome


National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index


 pain catastrophizing scale


patient health questionnaire


quality of life


  1. Alexander RB, Propert KJ, Schaeffer AJ, Landis JR, Nickel JC, O’Leary MP, Pontari MA, McNaughton-Collins M, Shoskes DA, Comiter CV, Datta NS, Fowler J Jr, Nadler RB, Zeitlin SI, Knauss JS, Wang Y, Kusek JW, Nyberg LM Jr, Litwin MS. (2004). Ann Intern Med. 141: 581–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander RB, Trissel D. (1996). Urology. 48: 568–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson R, Wise D, Sawyer T, Chan C. (2005). J Urol. 174: 155–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berghuis JP, Heiman JR, Rothman I, Berger R. (1996). J Psychosom Res. 41: 313–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Billington R. (1999). WHOQOL annoted bibliography: October 1999 version. World Health Organisation, Department of Mental Health.
  6. Boothby JL, Thorn BE, Stroud MW, Jensen MP. (1999).Turk DC, Gatchel RJ (eds.) Psychosocial Factors in Pain: Critical Perspectives. Guilford, New York, NY, pp. 343–359.Google Scholar
  7. Briere J, Elliott DM. (2003). Child Abuse Negl. 27: 1205–1222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calhoun EA, McNaughton-Collins M, Pontari MA, O’Leary MP, Leiby BE, Landis R, Kusek J, Litwin MS. (2004). Arch Intern Med. 164: 1231–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collins M, Stafford RS, O’Leary P, Barry MJ. (1999). J Urol. 53: 921.Google Scholar
  10. Collins MM, Meigs JB, Barry MJ, Walker Corkery E, Giovannucci E, Kawachi I. (2002). J Urol. 167: 1363–1366.Google Scholar
  11. Collins MM, Stafford RS, O’Leary MP, Barry MJ. (1998). Urol. 159: 1224–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidhizar R, Giger JN. (2004). Int Nursing Rev. 51: 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de la Rosette J, Ruijgrok M, Jeuken J, Karthaus H, Debruyne F. (1993). Urol. 42: 654–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. (2001). New Engl J Med. 344: 363–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Egan JK, Krieger JN. (1994). 10: 218–226.Google Scholar
  16. Egan KJ, Krieger JN. (1997). Pain. 69(3): 213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Golding JM. (1996). Res Nurs Health. 19: 33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill A. (1993). Pain. 55: 347–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hommel K, Wagner J, Chaney J, Mullins L. (2001). Int J Behav Med. 8: 208–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu JC, Link CL, McNaughton-Collins M, Barry MJ, McKinlay JB. (2007). J Gen Intern Med. 22(11): 1532–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hunfeld JAM, Perquin CW, Duivenvoorden HJ, Hazebroek-Kampschreur AAJM, Passchier J, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, van der Wouden JC. (2001). J Pediatr Psychol. 26: 145–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaplan RM, Anderson JP, Wu AW, Mathews WC, Kozin F, Orenstein D. (1989). Med Care. 27: 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karakiewicz PI, Perrotte P, Valiquette L, Benard F, McCormack M, Menard C, McNaughton-Collins M, Nickel JC. (2005). Can J Urol. 12: 2816–2823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kashikar-Zuck S, Goldschneider KR, Powers SW, Vaught MH, Hershey AD. (2001). Clin J Pain. 17: 341–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keefe FJ, Williams DA. (1990). J Gerontol Psychol Sci. 45: 161–165.Google Scholar
  26. Krieger JN, Egan K. (1991). Urol. 38: 11–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krieger JN, Nyberg L, Nickel JC. (1999). JAMA. 282(3): 236–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krieger JN, Riley DE, Cheah PY, Liong ML, Yuen KH. (2003). J Urol. 21(2): 70–74.Google Scholar
  29. Krieger JN, Ross SO, Penson DF, Riley DE. (2002). Urology. 60(6): 959–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ku J, Kim ME, Lee NK, Park YH. (2001). Urol Res. 29: 108–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ku J, Kim SW, Paick J. (2005). Urology. 66: 693–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ku J, Kwak C, Oh S-J, Lee E, Lee SE, Paick J-S. (2004). Int J Urol. 11: 489–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kunishima Y, Mori M, Kitamura H, Satoh H, Tsukamoto T. (2006). Int J Urol. 13: 1286–1289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lame I, Peters ML, Vlaeyen JWS, Kleef M, Patijn J. (2005). Eur J Pain. 9: 15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lampe A, Solder E, Ennemoser A, Schubert C, Rumpold G, Sollner W. (2000). Obstet Gynecol. 96: 929–933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee S, Cheah PY, Liong ML, Yuen KH, Schaeffer AJ, Propert K, Krieger JN. (2007). J Urol. 177: 153–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leininger MJ. (2002). Transcultural Nurs. 10(1): 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Li Y, Qi L, Wen JG, Zu XB, Chen ZY. (2006). BJU Int. 98: 818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Litwin MS, McNaughton-Collins M, Fowler FJ Jr, Nickel JC, Calhoun EA, Pontari MA, Alexander RB, Farrar JT, O’Leary MP. (1999). J Urol. 162(2): 369–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McBryde CF, Redington JJ. (2002). Prim Care Case Rev. 5(1): 40–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McMahon MJ, Gatchel RJ, Polatin PB, Mayer TG. (1997). Spine. 22(20): 2408–2415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McNaughton-Collins M, Pontari MA, O’Leary MP, Calhoun EA, Santanna J, Landis JR, Kusek JW, Litwin MS. (2001). J Gen Intern Med. 16: 656–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Merlijn V, Hunfeld J, van der Wouden J, Hazebroek-Kampschreur A, Passchier J, Koes B. (2006). Clin J Pain. 22: 306–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Merskey H, Bogduk N. (1994). Classification of Chronic Pain. IASP, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  45. Molnar BE, Buka SL, Kessler RC. (2001). Am J Public Health. 91: 753–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nicassio PM, Wallston KA, Callahan LF, Herbert M, Pincus T. (1985). J Rheumatol. 12: 462–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nickel JC. (2002). The Prostatitis Manual: A practical guide to Management of Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome, 1st ed. Bladon Medical Publishing, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  48. Nickel JC, Downey J, Ardern D, Clark J, Nickel K. (2004). J Urol. 172: 551–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nickel JC, Downey J, Clark J, Casey RW, Pommerville PJ, Barkin J, Steinhoff G, Brock G, Patrick AB, Flax S, Goldfarb B, Palmer BW, Zadra J. (2003a). Urology. 62(4): 614–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nickel JC, Downey J, Hunter D, Clark J. (2001). J Urol. 165: 842–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nickel JC, Mullins C, Tripp DA. (2008). World J Urol. 26: 167–172.Google Scholar
  52. Nickel JC, Pontari M, Berger R. (2006). Rev Urol. 8(1): 28–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Nickel JC, Pontari M, Moon T, Gittelman M, Malek G, Farrington J, Pearson J, Krupa D, Bach M, Drisko J. (2003b). Urology. 169: 1401–1405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nickel JC, Tripp DA, Chuai S, Litwin MS, McNaughton-Collins M, Landis JR, Alexander RB, Schaeffer AJ, O’Leary MP, Pontari MA, White P, Nyberg L, Kusek J, Mullins C. (2007). BJU. 101: 59–64.Google Scholar
  55. Nodari E, Battistella PA, Naccarella C, Vidi M. (2002). Headache. 42: 268–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Palmero TM. (2001). Dev Behav Pediatr. 21: 58–69.Google Scholar
  57. Pontari MA, Ruggieri MR. (2004). J Urol. 172: 839–845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rizzo M, Marchetti F, Travaglin F, Trinchieri A, Nickel JC. (2003). BJU Int. 92: 955–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roberts RO, Lieber MM, Rhodes T, Girman CJ, Bostwick DG, Jacobsen SJ. (1998). Urology. 51: 578–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rothrock N, Lutgendorf SK, Kreder KJ. (2003). J Urol. 169: 233–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schaeffer AJ. (2006). New Engl J Med. 355: 1690–1698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schaeffer AJ, Knauss JS, Landis JR, Propert KJ, Alexander RB, Litwin MS, Nickel JC, O’Leary MP, Nadler RB, Pontari MA, Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Fowler JE Jr, Mazurick CA, Kusek JW, Nyberg LM. (2002b). J Urol. 168: 1048–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Schaeffer AJ, Landis JR, Knauss JS, Propert KL, Alexander RB, Litwin MS, Nickel JC, O’Leary MP, Nadler RB, Pontari MA, Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Fowler JE Jr, Mazurick CA, Kishel L, Kusek JW, Nyberg LM. (2002a). J Urol. 168: 593–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith T, Christensen A, Peck J, Ward J. (1994). Health Psychol. 13: 213–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith T, Peck J, Ward J. (1990). Health Psychol. 9: 377–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sullivan MJL, Thorn B, Haythornthwaite JA, Keefe FJ, Martin M, Bradley LA, Lefebvre JC. (2001). Clin J Pain. 17: 52–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Talley NJ, Fett SL, Zinsmeister AR, Melton LJ, 3rd. (1994). Gastroenterology. 107: 1040–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Torrance GW. (1987). J Chron Dis. 40: 593–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tripp DA, Nickel CJ, Landis R, Wang Y, Knauss JL.(2004). BJU Int 94: 1279–1282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tripp DA, Nickel C, Wang Y, Litwin S, McNaughton-Collins M, Landis JR, Alexander RB, Schaeffer A, O’Leary M, Pontari M, Fowler J Jr, Nyberg L, Kusek J. (2006). J Pain. 7: 697–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tripp DA, Nickel JC, Ross S, Mullins C, Stechyson N. (In Press). British J Urol.Google Scholar
  72. Turner JA, Hauge S, VonKorff M, Saunders K, Lowe M, Berger R. (2002). J Urol. 167: 1768–1773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walz J, Perrotte P, Hutterer G, Suardi N, Jeldres C, Bénard F, Valiquette L, Karakiewicz P. (2007). BJU Int. 100: 1307–1311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weir R, Browne G, Roberts J, Tunks E, Gafni A. (1994). Pain. 58(3): 377–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wenninger K, Heiman JR, Rothman I, Burghuis JP, Berger R. (1996). J Urol. 155: 965–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Tripp
    • 1
  • J. C. Nickel
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Psychology, Anesthesiology, UrologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of UrologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations