Healthy Lifestyle Habits and Health-Related Quality of Life in Diabetes

  • C. Li
  • E. S. Ford
Reference work entry


The prevalence of diabetes has continued to rise in the Unites States. Diabetes has significant impact on  health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Thus, improving HRQOL has been an important aspect of health care management in the diabetic population. In this chapter, we systematically reviewed 20 studies on the correlates of HRQOL in diabetes published between 1998 and 2008. Diabetes-related complications, older age, female sex, black or Native American race/ethnicity, longer  duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity are associated with the impairment of HRQOL in diabetes. Micro- and macro-vascular complications appear to be the strongest correlates of HRQOL. Therefore, intervention strategies aimed at preventing or delaying the occurrence of these complications may lead to improvement of HRQOL.  Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improvement of HRQOL. Because people with diabetes are more likely to be non-smokers and to consume more fruits and vegetables but less likely to reach the recommended level of physical activity than those without diabetes, efforts are needed to promote the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits in order to improve HRQOL in diabetes. As an illustration, we provide updated prevalence estimates of impaired HRQOL among people with diabetes and demonstrate how the healthy lifestyle habits are associated with HRQOL using a large population-based sample.


Insulin Therapy Vigorous Physical Activity Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Intermittent Claudication Macrovascular Complication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations:


Beck depression inventory


body mass index


 behavioral risk factor surveillance system


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


confidence interval


cardiovascular disease


 diabetes mellitus


diabetes specific qualify of life scale


diabetes-quality of life


euroQOL-5 dimensions


euroQOL-visual analogue scale


European quality of life scale


fruit and vegetable consumption


healthy lifestyle habits


health-related quality of life


health utility index


insulin dependent diabetes mellitus


leisure-time physical activity


non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus


not smoking


prevalence ratio


quality of life


quality of well-being index-self administered version


standard error


short form-20


short form-36


survey data analysis


Swedish health-related quality of life scale


type 1 diabetes mellitus


type 2 diabetes mellitus


United Kingdom


United States


World Health Organization



We thank the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System state coordinators for their assistance in data collection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Li
    • 1
  • E. S. Ford
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health PromotionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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