Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

1999 Edition
| Editors: Clare P. Marshall, Rhodes W. Fairbridge


  • Thomas Staudacher
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4496-8_10


Krypton was discovered in 1898 by W. Ramsay and M.W. Travers in the residue of liquid air. Its name comes from the Greek kryptos = ‘the hidden one’. Kr has the atomic number 36. It has 6 stable isotopes 78Kr, 80Kr, 82Kr, 83Kr, 84Kr and 86Kr, with respective atomic masses of 77.920368, 79.913680, 81.913482, 82.914135, 83.911507 and 85.910616. Its atomic weight is 83.80 g/mol; melting point: 116.55 K; boiling point: 119.80 K. The atomic diameter is 3.58 Å. Gas density is 3.733 kg/m3 at 1 atm and 237.15 K. Krypton has the electron configuration 1s22s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6 and a first ionization potential of 13.999 eV. Its valence is usually 0, but 2, 4, 6 and 8 are observed. It forms the hydride ion KrH+, krypton difluoride KrF2 and a hydroquinone clathrate [C6H4(OH)2]3. 0.74Kr, which forms stable crystals (Cook, 1961).

Dry air contains 1.14 × 10−4 vol.% krypton with 78Kr/84Kr, 80Kr/84Kr, 82Kr/84Kr, 83Kr/84Kr and 86Kr/84Kr ratios of 0.006087, 0.03960, 0.20217, 0.20136 and 0.30524...


Radioactive Isotope Stable Isotope Incandescent Lamp Spontaneous Fission Flash Lamp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Cook G.A. (1961) Argon, helium and the rare gases, The Elements of the Helium Group, Vol 1. New York: Interscience Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. Eikenberg, J., Signer, P. and Wieler, R. (1993) U–Xe, U–Kr, and U-Pb systematics for dating uranium minerals and investigations of the production of nucleogenic neon and argon. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 1053–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Stute, M., Schlosser, P., Clark, J.F. and Broecker, W.S. (1992) Paleotemperatures in the southwestern United States derived from noble gases in ground water. Science, 256, 1000–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Staudacher

There are no affiliations available