Mineralogy

1981 Edition

Apatite group

  • Duncan McConnell
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-30720-6_9

In addition to being an accessory mineral of most igneous rocks, fluorapatite is found in minor amounts in both metamorphic rocks and arenaceous sediments. Vast quantities of phosphatic rocks, called phosphorites, are found in various parts of the world, and these are predominately francolite (carbonate fluorapatite). As a biomineral, dahllite (carbonate hydroxyapatite) is the mineral component of bones and teeth of all living vertebrates (see  Human and Vertebrate Mineralogy.)

Chemistry

Besides these phosphatic species, several structurally related minerals, including arsenates, vanadates, and silicates, have the apatite structure; these minerals are:

fluorapatite

Ca10F2(PO4)6

hydroxyapatite

Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6

chlorapatite

Ca10Cl2(PO4)6

francolite

Ca10F2(PO4,CO3)6

dahlite

Ca10(OH)2(PO4,CO3)6

belovite

(Sr,Ce,Na,Ca)10(OH)2(PO4)6

fermorite

(Ca,Sr)10(OH)2(AsO4,PO4)6

hedyphane

(Ca,Pb)10Cl2(AsO4)6

wilkeite

Ca10(O,OH,F)2(SiO4,PO4,SO4)6

britholite

(Ce,Ca)10(OH,F)2(SiO4,PO4)6

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References

  1. Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A.; and Zussman, J., 1962. Rock-Forming Minerals, vol. 5. London: Longmans, 323–338.Google Scholar
  2. McConnell, D., 1952. The problem of the carbonate apatites. IV. Structural substitutions involving CO3 and OH. Bull. Soc. Min. Crist., 75, 428–445.Google Scholar
  3. McConnell, D., 1973. Apatite: Its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences. New York/Wien: Springer-Verlag, 111p.Google Scholar
  4. Palache, C.; Berman, H.; and Frondel, C.; 1951. The System of Mineralogy, 7th ed. New York: Wiley, 877–906.Google Scholar
  5. Strunz, H., 1970. Mineralogische Tabellen, 5th ed. Leipzig: Geest & Portig K.-G., 326–329.Google Scholar
  6. Winchell, A. N., and Winchell, H., 1964. The Microscopic Character of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances. New York/London: Academic Press, 203–205.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duncan McConnell

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