1981 Edition

Blacksand minerals and metals

  • C. N. Savage
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-387-30720-6_18
Long before history was being recorded, men must have observed the concentration of heavy, black minerals on beaches, along streams, and in deserts. Lightweight minerals in these environments are naturally winnowed from heavier, often dark or black detrital mineral components by wave, current, stream, and wind action. These natural process systems produce concentrations of minerals with different densities because of continually changing levels of energy within, and related to, different environments ( Daily, 1973). Locally, the resultant heavy-mineral concentrations ( Fig. 1) may be called placers (see Placer Deposit). As early as 1742, Shellrocke's Voyages to California told of abundant beach deposits of black minerals discovered along the west coast of America. Later it was ascertained that these black mineral deposits contained platinum, magnetite, chromite , garnet , and rutile , among other minerals. Black minerals, such as magnetite, ilmenite , and hematite, are particularly...
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© Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company 1981

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  • C. N. Savage

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