Private Schooling and Tutoring at Scale in South Asia

  • Priyadarshani JoshiEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Global Education Systems book series (GES)


The chapter reviews trends and reasons for increased private schooling and tutoring in South Asia, and the systemic implications and governance strategies to tackle this proliferation. Focusing primarily on the most recent 5 years of academic and gray evidence, I find that Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka have experienced substantial growth in private tutoring. Private provision has grown due to a lack of adequate public supply. Parental demand for private schooling and increasingly tutoring is based on perceptions of better quality and interest in seeking a competitive advantage. Some systemic implications include concerns of equity and that the “shadow” system of private tutoring can begin to overshadow or supplant regular schooling. Regulatory systems in the region require significant reconsideration, given implementation challenges of existing regulations, and the growth and diversification of the private tutoring system.


Private schools Private tutoring Accountability Parental demand 



The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this chapter do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The author is responsible for the choice and the presentation of the facts contained in this chapter and for the opinions expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global Education Monitoring ReportUNESCOParisFrance

Section editors and affiliations

  • Amita Chudgar
    • 1
  • Monazza Aslam
    • 2
  1. 1.Professor of Education Policy, College of EducationMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.University of OxfordOxfordUnited Kingdom

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