Education of Myanmar

Break Away from Military Era Traditions and Make Democratic and Dynamic Changes
  • Yoshitaka TanakaEmail author
  • Myat Myat Khine
Living reference work entry
Part of the Global Education Systems book series (GES)


The foundation of Myanmar’s current education system was laid during the 1970s when the country was under an extremely authoritarian military regime. Though there were some minor revisions in the 1980s and the 1990s, this system continued until 2015. Since the old education system was enforced for many decades, it does not fit the requirements of the current era. Criticism of the education system therefore gradually emerged and became stronger after the military regime ended. A large-scale education reform was initiated from 2013 onward after the establishment of the Thein Sein administration. This reform was intended to bring about a comprehensive revision of an education system that still contained ideas from the time of the military regime. The reform covered a wide range of issues such as education-related laws and rules, the school system, curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation and examination system, teacher education system, educational administration, and so forth. It is widely believed therefore that the reform, which according to the Ministry of Education (MOE) will be completed by 2028, will be a complex process involving various challenges. The greatest challenge is about implementing the reform smoothly and efficiently. It is only when the large-scale education reform is accomplished that Myanmar will be on par with other developed countries that have adopted a modern system of education.


Military regime Democracy Monastery Compulsory education Free education Curriculum Competency Transition 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Educational DevelopmentThe International Development Center of Japan (IDCJ)TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Former Government Officer of the Ministry of Education (MOE), The Republic of the Union of MyanmarYangonMyanmar

Section editors and affiliations

  • Archana Mehendale
    • 1
  • Tatsuya Kusakabe
  1. 1.Centre for Education Innovation and Action ResearchTata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

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