Creative and Gifted Education in Korea: Using the CATs Model to Illustrate How Creativity Can Grow into Innovation

  • Kyung Hee KimEmail author
  • Jeongkyu Lee
Living reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)


In the research-based CATs (climates, attitudes, and thinking skills) model (Kim, 2016, 2017, 2019), we propose how individuals can develop creativity into innovation. We used this model as the basis for analysing and evaluating the recent Korean education efforts for creative and gifted education. The CATs model includes three steps and metaphors of natural phenomenon and acronyms are used to illustrate these three steps, that are: (a) cultivating climates uses the 4S that are metaphors of sun, storm, soil, and space; (b) nurturing the 4S attitudes; and (c) applying ION (inbox, outbox, and newbox) thinking skills. The 4S climates nurture the 4S attitudes, which enable ION thinking skills. For these three steps of climate, attitudes, and creative thinking, metaphorically: sun characterises inspiration and encouragement; storm includes high expectations and challenges; soil comprises diverse resources, experiences, and viewpoints; and space represents thinking deeply and freely. How Korean education inhibits or fosters creativity, even though significant educational efforts have attempted to cultivate the 4S climates for its gifted students, will be explored in this chapter.


Korean education Creative economy Creativity and character education Creative climate Creative attitude Creative thinking Creative personality 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The College of William & MaryWilliamsburgUSA
  2. 2.The Korea Foundation for the Advancement of ScienceSeoulSouth Korea

Section editors and affiliations

  • Seokhee Cho
    • 1
  1. 1.St. John’s UniversityNew YorkUSA

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