Advertisement

Ethnicity, Race, and Black People in Europe

  • Stephen SmallEmail author
Reference work entry
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter provides a definition and examples of the concepts of ethnicity and race, by describing and explaining the presence and experiences of black people in Western Europe at the present time. And it provides examples of the range of ethnic differences in the white population of Europe at a time of increasing national and populist movements. There are currently just over 7 million black people in the 46 nations of Europe, the majority of whom are born and raised in Europe. The black population reveals a wide range of ethnic differences in terms of religion, language, national origins, family format, gender, as well as in music, film, literature, and food. At the same time, regardless of their ethnic origins, all black people in Europe share three common experiences that result from racial stereotypes and discrimination. These are ambiguous hyper-visibility, entrenched vulnerability, and irrepressible resistance and resilience. It is argued that race, ethnicity, and other variables such as economics and gender are intricately entangled with one another in both populations in ways that make it difficult to predict outcomes for different populations.

Keywords

Race Ethnicity Ambiguous hyper-visibility Entrenched vulnerability Irrepressible resistance and resilience 

References

  1. Adi H (2013) Pan-Africanism and communism. The Communist International, Africa and the diaspora, 1919–1939. Africa WorldPress, TrentonGoogle Scholar
  2. Araújo M, Maeso SR (2015) Eurocentrism, racism and knowledge. Debates history and power in Europe and the Americas. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Beckles H (2013) Britain’s Black Debt. Reparations for Caribbean slavery and native genocide. University of the West Indies, KingstonGoogle Scholar
  4. Clarke KM, Thomas D (2006) Globalization and race. Transformations in the cultural production of blackness. Duke University Press, Durham/LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Daniel W (1968) Racial discrimination in England. Penguin Books, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  6. El Tayeb F (2011) European others. Queering ethnicity in postnational Europe. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis/LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Emejulu A, Bassel L (2017) Minority women and austerity: survival and resistance in France and Britain. Polity Press, BristolGoogle Scholar
  8. Essed P, Hoving I (2014) Dutch racism. Thymaris, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hine DC, Keaton TD, Small S (2009) Black Europe and the African diaspora. University of Illinois Press, Urbana/ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  10. Hira S (2014) 20 Questions and answers on reparations for colonialism. Amrit Publishers, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  11. Hondius D (2014) Blackness in Western Europe. Racial patterns of paternalism and exclusion. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick/LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Mazzocchetti J (2014) Migrations Susaharienne, et Condition Noires En Belgique. Academia, L’Harmattan, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  13. McEachrane M (2014) Afro-Nordic landscapes. Equality and race in Northern Europe. Routledge, New York/LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McIntosh L (2014) Impossible presence. Race, nation and the cultural politics of ‘being Norwegian’. Ethn Racial Stud 38(2):309–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moore JW (2010) ‘Amsterdam is standing on Norway’ Part II: the global North Atlantic in the ecological revolution of the long seventeenth century. J Agrar Chang 10(2):188–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nimako K, Willemsen G (2011) The Dutch Atlantic. Slavery, abolition and emancipation. Pluto Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Rosenhaft E, Aitken R (2013) Africa in Europe. Studies in transnational practice in the long twentieth century. Liverpool University Press, LiverpoolCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sivanandan A (1990) Communities of resistance. Writings on Black struggles for socialism. Verso, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Small (1983) Police and people in London. II A group of young Black people. Policy Studies Institute report no. 619. Policy Studies Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Small S (2018) 20 Questions and answers on Black Europe. Amrit Publishers, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  21. Vertovec S (2007) Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic Racial Stud 30(6):1024–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Virdee S (2014) Racism, class and the racialized outsider. Basingstoke, UK, PalgraveGoogle Scholar
  23. Wekker G (2016) White innocence. Paradoxes of colonialism and race. Duke University Press, DurhamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. White EJ (2012) Modernity, freedom and the African diaspora: Dublin, New Orleans, Paris. Indiana University Press, BloomingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. Zimmerman A (2010) Alabama in Africa. Booker T Washington, The German Empire & the globalization of the New South. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of African American StudiesUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vijay Naidu
    • 1
  1. 1.University of the South PacificSuvaFiji

Personalised recommendations