Advertisement

Ethnic Minorities and Criminalization of Immigration Policies in the United States

  • Felicia ArriagaEmail author
Reference work entry
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Immigration policies in the United States not only describe the inclusive and exclusive nature of citizenship but also define that very citizenship through various arenas of law, namely, immigration and criminal law. Some ethnic groups are able to “become white” through legal definitions of citizenship, while others – racialized immigrants – remain as “second-class citizens” subject to criminalization and perceived criminality. It is only by considering how criminalization processes target other racial groups that one can construct how the criminalization of immigration policies serves to maintain a system of domination. The racialization process of certain immigrant groups has occurred through relational race making, whereby ethnic immigrants and the immigration policies pertaining to these groups also serve to criminalize them vis-à-vis other racial or racialized immigrant groups.

Keywords

Criminalization Racialized immigrants Crimmigration Immigration enforcement 

References

  1. Banton M (1977) The idea of race. Tavistock, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. BBC News (2017) MS-13 gang: the story behind one of the world’s most brutal street gangs. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-39645640. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  3. Beirne P, Messerschmidt JW (2014) Criminology: a sociological approach. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Binder J (2018) Exclusive-Kris Kobach: three 9/11 planes could have been stopped by immigration enforcement. https://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2018/09/11/exclusive-kris-kobach-three-9-11-planes-could-have-been-stopped-by-immigration-enforcement/. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  5. Blythe A (2018) ICE picks up Durham man days before hearing on legality of 48-hour hold. https://www.newsobserver.com/news/local/article211996234.html. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  6. Bonilla-Silva E (1997) Rethinking racism: toward a structural interpretation. Am Sociol Rev 62(3):465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campoy A (2016) Mexico has its own version of Donald Trump’s border wall and it’s just as controversial. https://qz.com/778314/mexico-wants-to-stop-central-american-immigrants-from-boarding-la-bestia-train/. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  8. Cohen S (2002) Folk devils and moral panics : the creation of the Mods and Rockers. London ; New York: Routledge, 2002Google Scholar
  9. Coleman M, Kocher A (2011) Deportation and civic stratification in the U.S., post-9/11. Geogr J 177:228–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coleman M (2012) The “Local” Migration State: The Site-Specific Devolution of Immigration Enforcement in the U.S. South. Law & Policy, 34(2):159–190.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9930.2011.00358.x
  11. Cunningham G (1965) The Italian: a hindrance to white solidarity in Louisiana, 1890–1898. J Negro Hist 50(34):22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeGrave S (2018) ICE challenged at public meeting over 287(g), no supporters speak out among crowd of 40. https://www.citizen-times.com/story/news/local/2018/04/25/ice-challenged-public-meeting-over-287-g-no-supporters-speak-out-among-crowd-40/545741002/. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  13. Elmer Sandmeyre C (1991) The anti-Chinese movement in California. University of Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  14. Feldblum S (2018) ICE raids shine spotlight on Henderson County’s 287(g) program. https://mountainx.com/news/ice-raids-shine-spotlight-on-henderson-countys-287g-program/. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  15. Fernandez Campbell A (2018) Trump doesn’t need to put families in detention centers to enforce his immigration policy. There are better options. https://www.vox.com/2018/6/22/17483230/family-separation-immigration-alternatives-immigrant-detention-centers. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  16. Fredrick J (2018) Mexico deploys a formidable deportation force near its own Southern border. https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2018/05/07/607700928/mexico-deploys-a-formidable-deportation-force-near-its-own-southern-border. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  17. García SJ (2017) Racializing ‘illegality’: an intersectional approach to understanding how Mexican-origin women navigate an anti-immigrant climate. Sociol Race Ethn 3(4):474–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garcia Hernandez CC (2013) Creating crimmigration. Bringham Young Univ Law Rev 6: 1457–1515Google Scholar
  19. Golash-Boza T, Hondagneu-Sotelo P (2013) Latino immigrant men and the deportation crisis: a gendered racial removal program. Lat Stud 11(2013):271–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gonzales R (2017) DHS publishes list of jurisdictions that rejected immigrant detainer requests. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/03/20/520851267/dhs-publishes-list-of-jurisdictions-that-rejected-immigrant-detainer-requests. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  21. Graham Synott M (1986) Anti-semitism and American universities: did quotas follow Jews? In: Gerber D (ed) Anti-semitism in American history. Illinois Press, Urbana, pp 233, 238–239, 249–250Google Scholar
  22. Haney-López I (2006) White by law. [electronic eresource]: the legal construction of race. New York University Press, New York [c2006]Google Scholar
  23. Harwell D, Miroff N (2018) ICE just abandoned its dream of ‘extreme vetting’ software that could predict whether a foreign visitor would become a terrorist. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2018/05/17/ice-just-abandoned-its-dream-of-extreme-vetting-software-that-could-predict-whether-a-foreign-visitor-would-become-a-terrorist/?utm_term=.1d1d94bc019c. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  24. ICE (2017) ICE announces 18 new 287(g) agreements in Texas. https://www.ice.gov/news/releases/ice-announces-18-new-287g-agreements-texas. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  25. ICE (2018) Fiscal year 2017 ICE enforcement and removal operations report. https://www.ice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Report/2017/iceEndOfYearFY2017.pdf. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  26. Jacobson MF (1998) Whiteness of a different color: European immigrants and the alchemy of race. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Kalir B, Wissink L (2016) The deportation continuum: convergences between state-agents and NGO-workers in the Dutch deportation field. Citizsh Stud 20(1):34–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kobach KW (2005) The quintessential force multiplier: the inherent authority of local police to make immigration arrests. Albany Law Rev 69(1):179–235Google Scholar
  29. Lamb A (2018) Orange sheriff, ICE square off over release of inmates in US illegally. https://www.wral.com/orange-sheriff-ice-square-off-over-release-of-inmates-in-us-illegally/17724377/. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  30. Lesser G, Batalova J (2017) Central American immigrants in the United States. Migration Policy Institute https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/central-american-immigrants-united-states. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  31. Levin S (2017) Over my dead body’: tribe aims to block Trump’s border wall on Arizona land. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/26/donald-trump-border-wall-tohono-oodham-arizona-tribe. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  32. Massey DS, Malone NJ, Durand J (2002) Beyond smoke and mirrors: Mexican immigration in an era of economic integration. Russell Sage Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Massey DS, Durand J, Pren KA (2016) Why border enforcement backfired. Am J Sociol 121(5):1557–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McGraw M (2017) A timeline of Trump’s immigration executive order and legal challenges. https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/timeline-president-trumps-immigration-executive-order-legal-challenges/story?id=45332741. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  35. Menchaca M (1993) Chicano Indianism: a historical account of racial repression in the United States. Am Ethnol 20:583–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Menjivar C (2014) The “Poli-Migra”: multilayered legislation, enforcement practices, and what we can learn about and from today’s approaches. Am Behav Sci 58(13):1805–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Menjivar C, Abrego LJ (2012) Legal violence: immigration law and the lives of Central American immigrants. Am J Sociol 117(5):1380–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miles R (1993) Racisms after ‘race relations. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Nguyen M, Gill H (2010) The 287 (g) program: the cost and consequences of local immigration enforcement in North Carolina communities. The Latino Migration Project. http://cgi.unc.edu/uploads/media_items/287g-report-final.original.pdf. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  40. Omi M, Winant H (1986) Racial formation in the United States: from the 1960s to the 1980s. Routledge, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  41. Painter NI (2010) The history of white people. W.W. Norton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Parlapiano A (2018) The travel ban has been upheld. Here are some of its effects so far. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/06/27/us/politics/trump-travel-ban-effects.html. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  43. Partlow J, Miroff N (2018) U.S. gathers data on migrants deep in Mexico, a sensitive program Trump’s rhetoric could put at risk. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-gathers-data-on-migrants-deep-in-mexico-a-sensitive-program-trumps-rhetoric-could-put-at-risk/2018/04/06/31a8605a-38f3-11e8-b57c-9445cc4dfa5e_story.html?utm_term=.483c864d4f9d. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  44. Pedroza J (2013) Removal roulette: secure communities and immigration enforcement in the United States (2008–2012). In: Brothrton D, Stageman D, Leyro S (eds) Outside justice: immigration and the criminalizing impact of changing policy and practice. Springer, New York, pp 45–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Perea J, Delgado R, Harris A, Stefancic J, Wildman S (2006) Race and races: cases and resources for a diverse America. West, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  46. Peters J (2018) How politics took over the killing of Mollie Tibbetts. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/23/us/politics/mollie-tibbetts-republicans-immigration-trump.html. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  47. Roediger D (2007) The wages of whiteness: race and the making of the American working class. Verso, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Sacks KB (1994) How did Jews become white folks? In: Gregory S, Sanjek R (ed) Race. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, p 78–99Google Scholar
  49. Sáenz R, Douglas KM (2015) A call for the racialization of immigration studies: on the transition of ethnic immigrants to racialized immigrants. Sociol Race Ethn 1(1):168–180Google Scholar
  50. Selod S, Embrick DG (2013) Racialization and muslims: situating the muslim experience in race scholarship. Sociol Compass 7(8):644–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Steinberg S (1989) The ethnic myth: race, ethnicity, and class in America. Beacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  52. Stumpf J (2006) The crimmigration crisis: immigrants, crime, and sovereign power. Am Univ Law Rev 56(2):367–420Google Scholar
  53. TRAC (2014) ICE deportations: gender, age, and country of citizenship. http://trac.syr.edu/immigration/reports/350/#f1. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  54. Trujillo-Pagan N (2013) Emphasizing the ‘complex’ in the ‘immigration industrial complex. Crit Sociol 40(1):29–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (2018) Border patrol history. https://www.cbp.gov/border-security/along-us-borders/history. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  56. USCIS (2018) Temporary protected status. https://www.uscis.gov/humanitarian/temporary-protected-status. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  57. Whitehouse (2017a) Executive order: enhancing public safety in the interior of the United States. https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-enhancing-public-safety-interior-united-states/. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  58. Whitehouse (2017b) Executive order: border security and immigration enforcement improvements. https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-border-security-immigration-enforcement-improvements/. Accessed 15 Sept 2018
  59. Wolf S (2010) Maras transnacionales: origins and transformations of Central American street gangs. Lat Am Res Rev 45(1):256CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sociology DepartmentAppalachian State UniversityBooneUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Melani Anae
    • 1
  1. 1.Pacific Studies, Te Wānanga o WaipapaUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations