Advertisement

Policing Ethnic Minorities: Disentangling a Landscape of Conceptual and Practice Tensions

  • Isabelle Bartkowiak-ThéronEmail author
  • Nicole L. Asquith
Reference work entry
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

The policing of ethnic minorities has been a challenge for law enforcement agencies. After decades of research, inquiries into policing, policy-making, and attempts at changing practice, some progress has been made, but we are still far from an ideal picture of equity and procedural fairness. Conceptually, and in practice, issues of racial profiling, institutional racism, and over-policing still plague the everyday police business. The many innovative initiatives to increase trust and accountability, build confidence, and close gaps between ethnic minorities and police officers are commendable. However, they go but a small step into the right direction. Some further efforts are needed toward human rights policing and critical diversity in policy to make up for the enduring and entrenched tensions that are the legacy of past colonialist and, in some case, genocidal practices.

Keywords

Police Policing Ethnicity Race Racism Minorities Vulnerability 

References

  1. Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission (1999) Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba. Retrieved at http://www.ajic.mb.ca/volume.html. Accessed 10 Sept 2018
  2. Alexander M (2010) The new Jim Crow: mass incarceration in the age of color blindness. New Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Allam L (2018) All children in detention in the Northern Territory are Indigenous. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/jun/25/all-children-in-detention-in-the-northern-territory-are-indigenous. Accessed 24 Sept 2018
  4. Anon (2012) Met police chief: 1 in 3 officers should be from a minority. LBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrCwq7tVUXk. Accessed 10 Sept 2018
  5. Anon (2016) Met police ‘more representative’ of diverse London. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-37317671. Accessed 10 Sept 2018
  6. Anthony T, Cunneen C (eds) (2008) The critical criminology companion. Hawkins Press, AnnandaleGoogle Scholar
  7. Asquith NL, Bartkowiak-Théron I, Roberts K (eds) (2017) Policing encounters with vulnerability. Palgrave Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Australasian Police Multicultural Advisory Bureau (2006) Annual report. APMAB, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  9. Australian Human Rights Commission (2010) Building trust: working with Muslim communities in Australia: a review of the community policing partnership project. AHRC, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  10. Australian Institute of Criminology (2017) National deaths in custody program. https://aic.gov.au/publications/mr/mr20/national-deaths-custody-program. Accessed 24 Sept 2018
  11. Bartkowiak-Théron I (2012a) Regard Critique sur le Multiculturalisme Australien. Inf Soc 171:54–63Google Scholar
  12. Bartkowiak-Théron I (2012b) Reaching out to vulnerable people: the work of police liaison officers. In: Bartkowiak-Théron I, Asquith NL (eds) Policing vulnerability. The Federation Press, Annandale, pp 84–100Google Scholar
  13. Bartkowiak-Théron I, Asquith NL (2012) The extraordinary intricacies of policing vulnerability. Australas Polic 4(2):43–50Google Scholar
  14. Bartkowiak-Théron I, Asquith NL (2015) Policing diversity and vulnerability in the post-Macpherson era: unintended consequences and missed opportunities. Policing 9(1):89–100Google Scholar
  15. Bartkowiak-Théron I, Corbo Crehan A (2010) The changing nature of communities: implications for police and community policing. In: Putt J (ed) Community policing: current and future directions for Australia – research and public policy. Australian Institute of Criminology, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  16. Body-Gendrot S (1998) Les villes face à l’insécurité: des ghettos américains aux banlieues françaises. Bayard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. Body-Gendrot S (2011) Police marginality, racial logics and discrimination in the banlieues de France. In: Amar P (ed) New racial missions of policing. Routledge, London, pp 82–99Google Scholar
  18. Bowling B, Phillips C (2003) Policing ethnic minorities. In: Newburn T (ed) Handbook of policing. Willian Publishing, Devon, pp 528–555Google Scholar
  19. Bowling B, Phillips C (2007) Disproportionate and discriminatory: reviewing the evidence on police stop and search. Mod Law Rev 70(6):936–961Google Scholar
  20. Bradford B (2014) Policing and social identity: procedural justice, inclusion and cooperation between police and public. Polic Soc 24(1):22–43Google Scholar
  21. Brogden M, Nijhar P (2005) Community policing: national and international models and approaches. Willan Publishing, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  22. Bui-Trong L (2000) Violences urbaines: Des vérités qui dérangent. Bayard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  23. Burnett J (2012) After Lawrence: racial violence and policing in the UK. Race Class 54(1):91–98Google Scholar
  24. Cain M, Sadigh S (1982) Racism, the police, and community policing: a comment on the Scarman report. J Law Soc 9(1):87–102Google Scholar
  25. Carpenter BJ, Ball M (2012) Justice in society. The Federation Press, Annandale, NSWGoogle Scholar
  26. Cashmore E (2002) Behind the window dressing: ethnic minority police perspectives on cultural diversity. J Ethn Migr Stud 28(2):327–341Google Scholar
  27. Cooper C (2005) An Afrocentric perspective on policing. In: Dunham RG, Alpert GP (eds) Critical issues in policing. Waveland Press, Long Grove, pp 325–349Google Scholar
  28. Crerar P (2018) Sadiq Khan reveals police will ‘significantly’ increase stop and search to tackle soaring knife crime. Evening Standard. https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/sadiq-khan-reveals-police-will-significantly-increase-stop-and-search-to-tackle-knife-crime-a3736501.html. Accessed 24 Sept 2018
  29. Cyr JL (2003) The folk devil reacts: gangs and moral panic. Crim Justice Rev 28(1):26–46Google Scholar
  30. De Koster M, Reinke H (2016) Policing minorities. In: Knepper P, Johansen A (eds) The Oxford handbook of the history of crime and criminal justice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 268–284Google Scholar
  31. Delsol R (2006) Racial profiling. In: Fleming J, Wakefield A (eds) The Sage dictionary of policing. Sage, London, pp 263–266Google Scholar
  32. Dodd V (2015) Theresa May: police forces are ‘too white’. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/oct/21/theresa-may-criticises-police-chief-bernard-hogan-howe-stop-search-race-record. Accessed 10 Sept 2018
  33. Egan-Vive P, Fraser K (2012) Policing vulnerable offenders: police early encounters with refugees. In: Bartkowiak-Théron I, Asquith NL (eds) Policing vulnerability. The Federation Press, Annandale, pp 132–146Google Scholar
  34. Fleming J (2010) Community policing: the Australian connection. In: Putt J (ed) Community policing: current and future directions for Australia – research and public policy. Australian Institute of Criminology, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  35. Fleming J, Wakefield A (2006) Policing. In: Fleming J, Wakefield A (eds) The Sage dictionary of policing. Sage, London, pp 232–234Google Scholar
  36. Fridell L, Scott M (2005) Law enforcement responses to racially biased policing and the perception of its practice. In: Dunham RG, Alpert GP (eds) Critical issues in policing. Waveland Press, Long Grove, pp 304–322Google Scholar
  37. Goldkamp JS (1976) Minorities as victims of police shootings: interpretations of racial disproportionality and police use of deadly force. Justice Syst J 2(2):169–183Google Scholar
  38. Goode E, Ben-Yehudfa N (2009) Moral panics: the social construction of deviance. Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary (1997) Winning the race: policing plural communities. HMIC thematic inspection report on police community and race relations. Home Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Herring C, Henderson L (2011) From affirmative action to diversity: toward a critical diversity perspective. Crit Sociol 38(5):629–643Google Scholar
  41. Holmes D, Hughes K, Julian R (2015) Australian sociology. Pearson, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  42. Home Office (2014) Stop and search: comprehensive package of reform for police stop and search powers. Theresa May Oral Statement to Parliament. 30 April 2014. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/stop-and-search-comprehensive-package-of-reform-for-police-stop-and-search-powers. Accessed 24 Sept 2018
  43. Jones T, Newburn T (2001) Widening access: improving police relations with hard to reach groups. Police research series paper 138. Home Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Kearns EM (2017) Why are some officers more supportive of community policing with minorities than others? Justice Q 34(7):1213–1245Google Scholar
  45. Mason-Bish H (2013) Conceptual issues in the construction of disability hate crime. In: Roulstone A, Mason-Bish H (eds) Disability, hate crime and violence. Routledge, London, pp 11–24Google Scholar
  46. McLeod A (2018) Diversity and inclusion in Australian policing: where are we at and where should we go? AIPM Public Saf Leadersh Res Focus 5(2):1–7Google Scholar
  47. Metropolitan Police (2018) Stop and search dashboard. https://www.met.police.uk/sd/stats-and-data/met/stop-and-search-dashboard/. Accessed 24 Sept 2018
  48. Murphy K, Cherney A (2011) Fostering cooperation with the police: how do ethnic minorities in Australia respond to procedural justice-based policing? Aust N Z J Criminol 44(2):235–257Google Scholar
  49. Murray K (2018) The modern making of stop and search: the rise of preventative sensibilities in post-war Britain. Br J Criminol 58(3):588–605Google Scholar
  50. Parliament of Victoria (2012) Review of Victoria Police use of ‘stop and search’ powers. https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/file_uploads/VPARL2010-14No128_bJxK7r5D.pdf. Accessed 24 Sept 2018
  51. Pickering S, Wright-Neville D, McCulloch J, Lentini P (2007) Counter-terrorism policing and culturally diverse communities. Australian Research Council Linkage final report. Monash University Publishing, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  52. Quinton P (2011) The formation of suspicions: police stop and search practices in England and Wales. Polic Soc 21(4):357–368Google Scholar
  53. Reiner R (2000) The politics of the police. 3rd Edition. Oxford, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  54. Rowe M (2006) Institutional racism. In: Fleming J, Wakefield A (eds) The Sage dictionary of policing. Sage, London, pp 171–173Google Scholar
  55. Rowe M, Ross JI (2015) Comparing the recruitment of ethnic and racial minorities in Police Departments in England and Wales with the USA. Policing 9(1):26–35Google Scholar
  56. Scarman L (1981) The Scarman report. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Sharp D, Atherton S (2007) The experiences of policing in the community of young people from Black and other ethnic minority groups. Br J Criminol 47:746–763Google Scholar
  58. Shepherd SM (2014) Why diversity many not mend adversity – an Australian commentary on multicultural affirmative action strategies in law enforcement. Curr Issues Crim Just 26(2):241–248Google Scholar
  59. Skogan WG (2006) Police and community in Chicago. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Spalek B, Imtoual A (2007) Muslim communities and counter-terrorism responses: “hard” approaches to community engagement in the UK and Australia. J Muslim Minor Aff 27(2):185–202Google Scholar
  61. Stenning PC (2003) Policing the cultural kaleidoscope: recent Canadian experience. Polic Soc 7:13–47Google Scholar
  62. Ticehurst A, Napier S, Bricknell S (2018) National deaths in custody program: deaths in custody in Australia 2013–14 and 2014–15. Statistical reports no. 5. Australian Institute of Criminology, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  63. Tyler TR (2005) Policing in Black and White: ethnic group differences in trust and confidence in the police. Police Q 8(3):322–342Google Scholar
  64. Victoria Police (2013) Equality is not the same… Victoria Police response to community consultation and reviews on field contact policy and data collection and cross cultural training. VicPol, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  65. White R (2004) Police and community responses to youth gangs. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, 274. Australian Institute of Criminology, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  66. White R (2009) Ethnic diversity and differential policing in Australia: the good, the bad and the ugly. Int Migr Integr 10:359–375Google Scholar
  67. White RD, Haines F, Asquith NL (2017) Crime and criminology, 6th edn. Oxford University Press, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  68. Wieviorka M (1999) Violence en France. Seuil, ParisGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams DGT (1982) The Brixton disorder. Camb Law J 41(1):1–6Google Scholar
  70. Willis M (2010) Aboriginal Liaison Officers in community policing. In: Putt J (ed) Community policing: current and future directions for Australia – research and public policy. Australian Institute of Criminology, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  71. Younge G (1999) The death of Stephen Lawrence: the MacPherson report. Polit Q 70:329–334Google Scholar
  72. Zhao JS, Lai Y-L, Ren L, Lawton B (2015) The impact of race/ethnicity and quality-of-life policing on public attitudes toward racially biased policing and traffic stops. Crime Delinq 6(3):350–374Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabelle Bartkowiak-Théron
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nicole L. Asquith
    • 2
  1. 1.Tasmanian Institute of Law Enforcement StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Western Sydney UniversityKingswoodAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Lyndon Fraser

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations