Advertisement

Stereotypes of Minorities and Education

  • Jean M. AllenEmail author
  • Melinda Webber
Reference work entry
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

Stereotyping is a phenomenon that impacts a range of people from diverse racial groups, ethnicities, genders, sexualities, and socioeconomic statuses. While all people are subject to stereotyping, the development of the process of stereotype threat (Steele, Am Psychol 52(6):613–629, 1997) has provided insight into how people from ethnically diverse groups are negatively impacted by stereotype threat to a greater extent than those from dominant ethnic groups. Extensive social-psychological research on minority test performance demonstrates that ethnically diverse students suffer underperformance due to their response to stereotype threat in the academic domain. These threats, which are a result of stereotypical beliefs, impact ethnically diverse students in a plethora of ways. In the Aotearoa New Zealand educational context, impacts from stereotype threat hold especially damaging consequences for Māori and Pacific students. The persistent disparities in educational opportunities and achievement for Māori and Pacific students are created and sustained by negative academic stereotypes that characterize these students as lacking in academic potential, motivation, and engagement with education. This chapter highlights how the stereotypes about Māori and Pacific student potential have a life of their own and can powerfully shape the educational opportunities and experiences of Māori and Pacific students. We end this chapter by suggesting concrete ways to mitigate stereotype threat, building upon the existing strengths of Māori and Pacific students.

Keywords

Pacific Māori Stereotype threat Education Ethnically diverse 

References

  1. Allen JM (2015) Who represents the Southside? Youth perspectives and news media representations of South Auckland. Unpublished master’s thesis, The University of AucklandGoogle Scholar
  2. Altschul I, Oyserman D, Bybee D (2006) Racial-ethnic identity in mid- adolescence: content and change as predictors of academic achievement. Child Dev 77(5):1155–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronson J (2004) The threat of stereotype. Educ Leadersh 62(3):14–19. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership.aspxGoogle Scholar
  4. Aronson J, Juarez L (2012) Growth mindsets in the laboratory and the real world. In: Subotnik RF, Miller L (eds) Malleable minds: translating insights from psychology and neuroscience to gifted education. Department of Education, Washington, DC, pp 19–36Google Scholar
  5. Aronson J, Lustina MJ, Good C, Keough K, Steele CM, Brown J (1999) When white men can’t do math: necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat. J Exp Soc Psychol 35:29–46.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1998.1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bishop L, Goodwin S (2010) ‘Whistling Vivaldi’ and beating stereotypes [audio file]. In: Conan N (ed) Talk of the nation. National Public Radio, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown C, Bigler R (2005) Children’s perceptions of gender discrimination: a developmental model. Child Dev 76(3):533–553.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00862.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark K, Clark M (1950) Emotional factors in racial identification and preference in Negro children. J Negro Educ 19(3):341–350.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2966491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Croizet JC, Claire T (1998) Extending the concept of stereotype threat to social class: the intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Personal Soc Psychol Bull 24(6):588–594.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167298246003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eccles JS (2006) A motivational perspective on school achievement: taking responsibility for learning, teaching, and supporting. In: Sternberg RJ, Subotnik RF (eds) Optimizing student success with the other three Rs: reasoning, resilience and responsibility. Information Age, Greenwich, pp 199–224Google Scholar
  11. Ewing H (2015) Stereotype threat and assessment in schools. J Init Teach Inq 1:7–9. Retrieved from https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/handle/10092/11471Google Scholar
  12. Fasavalu M (2015) Tales from above ‘the tail’: Samoan students’ experiences of teacher actions as culturally responsive pedagogy. Unpublished master’s thesis, The University of AucklandGoogle Scholar
  13. Feagin J (1991) The continuing significance of race: anti-black discrimination in public places. Am Sociol Rev 56(2):101–116. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/home/asrCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ferguson PB, Gorinski R, Wendt Samu T, Mara D (2008) Literature review on the experiences of Pasifika learners in the classroom. Ministry of Education, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  15. Fisher C, Jackson J, Villaruel F (1998) The study of African American and Latin American children and youth. In: Damon W, Lerner R (eds) Handbook of child psychology: theoretical models of human development. Wiley, New York, pp 1145–1207Google Scholar
  16. Ford DY, Grantham TC, Whiting GW (2008) Culturally and linguistically diverse students in gifted education: recruitment and retention issues. Except Child 74(3):289–306.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290807400302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frantz CM, Cuddy AJC, Burnett M, Ray H, Hart A (2004) A threat in the computer: the race implicit association test as a stereotype threat experience. Personal Soc Psychol Bull 30:1611–1624.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204266650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. García Coll C, Lamberty G, Jenkins R, McAdoo H, Crnic K, Wasik B et al (1996) An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Dev 67(5):1891–1914.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01834.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gates HL Jr, Steele CM (2009) A conversation with Claude M. Steele. Stereotype threat and black achievement. Du Bois Rev 6(2):251–271.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1742058X09990233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Good C (2012) Reformulation the talent equation: implications for gifted students’ sense of belonging and achievement. In: Subotnik RF, Robinson A, Callahan CM, Gubbins EJ (eds) Malleable minds: translating insights from psychology and neuroscience to gifted education. University of Connecticut National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, Storrs, pp 37–54Google Scholar
  21. Good C, Dweck CS, Aronson J (2007) Social identity, stereotype threat, and self-theories. In: Fuligni AJ (ed) Contesting stereotypes and creating identities. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp 115–134Google Scholar
  22. Greene M, Way N, Pahl K (2006) Trajectories of perceived adult and peer discrimination among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents: patterns and psychological correlates. Dev Psychol 42(2):218–238.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harrison LA, Stevens CM, Monty AN, Coakley CA (2006) The consequences of stereotype threat on the academic performance of white and non-white lower income college students. Soc Psychol Educ 9:341–357.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-005-5456-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hill J, Hawk K (2000) Making a difference in the classroom: effective teaching practice in low decile, multicultural schools. Massey University, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  25. Hughes D, Rodriguez J, Smith EP, Johnson DJ, Stevenson HC, Spicer P (2006) Parents’ ethnic-racial socialization practices: a review of research and directions for future study. Dev Psychol 42(5):747–770. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/dev/index.aspxCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hunter J, Hunter R, Bills T, Cheung I, Hannant B, Kritesh K, Lachaiya R (2016) Developing equity for Pāsifika learners within a New Zealand context: attending to culture and values. N Z J Educ Stud 51(2):197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Iosefo J (2014) Moonwalking with the Pasifika Girl in the Mirror: an autoethnography on spaces in higher education. Unpublished master’s dissertation, The University of AucklandGoogle Scholar
  28. Leitner JB, Jones JM, Hehman E (2013) Succeeding in the face of stereotype threat: the adaptive role of engagement regulation. Personal Soc Psychol Bull 39(1):17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Macfarlane A, Webber M, Cookson-Cox C, McRae H (2014) Ka Awatea: An iwi case study of Maori students’ success. [Manuscript]. University of Auckland, Auckland. Retrieved from http:www.maramatanga.co.nz/projects_publicationsGoogle Scholar
  30. Major B, Schmader T (2001) Legitimacy and social construal of disadvantage. In: Jost J, Major B (eds) The psychology of legitimacy: emerging perspectives on ideology, power, and intergroup relations. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 176–204Google Scholar
  31. Massey DS, Fischer MJ (2005) Stereotype threat and academic performance: new findings from a racially diverse sample of college freshmen. Du Bois Rev 2(1):45–67.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742058X05050058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McKown C (2004) Age and ethnic variation in children’s thinking about the nature of racism. J Appl Dev Psychol 25(5):597–617.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.08.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McKown C, Strambler M (2009) Developmental antecedents and social and academic consequences of stereotype consciousness in middle childhood. Child Dev 80(6):1643–1659. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/14678624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McKown C, Weinstein R (2003) The development and consequences of stereotypes consciousness in middle school. Child Dev 74(2):498–515. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/14678624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mila-Schaaf K (2010) Polycultural capital and the Pasifika second generation: negotiating identities in diasporic spaces. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Massey University, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  36. Ministry of Education (2003) Te Kotahitanga. Learning Media, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  37. Morgan S, Mehta J (2004) Beyond the laboratory: evaluating the survey evidence for the disidentification explanation of black–white differences in achievement. Sociol Educ 77(1):82–101.  https://doi.org/10.1177/003804070407700104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murphy MC, Steele CM, Gross JJ (2007) Signaling threat: how situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings. Psychol Sci 18(10):879–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nakhid C (2003) “Intercultural” perceptions. Academic achievement and the identifying process of Pacific Islands students in New Zealand schools. J Negro Educ 72(3):297–317. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3211249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nakhid C (2012) ‘Which side of the bridge to safety?’ How young Pacific Islanders in New Zealand view their South Auckland community. Kotuitui: NZ J Soc Sci Online 7(1):14–25.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1177083X.2012.670652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nguyen HHD, Ryan AM (2008) Does stereotype threat affect test performance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence. J Appl Psychol 93(6):1314–1334.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Osborne J (1997) Race and academic disidentification. J Educ Psychol 89(4):728–735.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.89.4.728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Osborne J (2001) Testing stereotype threat: does anxiety explain race and sex difference in achievement? Contemp Educ Psychol 26(3):291–310.  https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.2000.1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Osborne J (2007) Linking stereotype threat and anxiety. Educ Psychol 27(1):135–154.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410601069929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oyserman D, Lewis NA (2017) Seeing the destination and the path: using identity-based motivation to understand and reduce racial disparities in academic achievement. Soc Issues Policy Rev 11(1):159–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pronin E, Steele CM, Ross L (2004) Identity bifurcation in response to stereotype threat: women and mathematics. J Exp Soc Psychol 40(2):152–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031(03)00088-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rowley S, Kurtz Costes B, Mistry R, Feagans L (2007) Social status as a predictor of race and gender stereotypes in late childhood and early adolescence. Soc Dev 16(1):150–168.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00376.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rubie-Davies C, Hattie J, Hamilton R (2006) Expecting the best for students: teacher expectations and academic outcomes. Br J Educ Psychol 76(3):429–444.  https://doi.org/10.1348/000709905X53589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ryan K, Ryan A (2005) Psychological processes underlying stereotype threat and standardized math test performance. Educ Psychol 40(1):53–63.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4001_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Siope A (2011) The schooling experiences of Pasifika students. SET 3:10–16. Retrieved from http://www.nzcer.org.nz/nzcerpress/setGoogle Scholar
  51. Siteine A (2010) The allocation of Pasifika identity in New Zealand classrooms MAI Review 2010(1):1–12. Retrieved from http://www.journal.mai.ac.nz
  52. Siteine A (2017) Recognising ethnic identity in the classroom: a New Zealand study. Int Stud Sociol Educ 26(4):393–407.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09620214.2016.1264869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith J (2004) Understanding the process of stereotype threat: a review of mediational variables and new performance goal directions. Educ Psychol Rev 16(3):177–206.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDPR.0000034020.20317.89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith S, Hung L (2008) Stereotype threat: effects on education. Soc Psychol Educ 11:243–257.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-008-9053-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Spencer S, Steele C, Quinn D (1999) Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. J Exp Soc Psychol 35:4–28.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1998.1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. St. George A (1983) Teacher expectations and perceptions of Polynesian and Pākehā pupils and the relationship to classroom behaviour and school achievement. Br J Educ Psychol 53(1):48–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Steele C (1992) Race and the schooling of Black Americans. The Atlantic Monthly 269(4): 68–78Google Scholar
  58. Steele CM (1997) A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. Am Psychol 52(6):613–629. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/amp/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steele C (1998) Stereotyping and its threat are real. Am Psychol 53:680–681. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/amp/CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Steele C (2003) Stereotype threat and African-American student achievement. In: Perry T, Steele C, Hilliard A (eds) Young, gifted, and black: promoting high achievement among African-American students. Beacon Press, Boston, pp 109–130Google Scholar
  61. Steele C (2010) Whistling Vivaldi. W.W. Norton & Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Steele C, Aronson J (1995) Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. J Pers Soc Psychol 69(5):797–811.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Steele CM, Spencer SJ, Aronson J (2002) Contending with group image: the psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. In: Zana MP (ed) Advances in experimental social psychology. Academic, San Diego, pp 379–440Google Scholar
  64. Steinberg L, Silk J (2002) Parenting adolescents. In: Bornstein M (ed) Handbook of parenting: children and parenting. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 103–133Google Scholar
  65. Stone J (2002) Battling doubt by avoiding practice: the effect of stereotype threat on self-handicapping in white athletes. Personal Soc Psychol Bull 28:1667–1678.  https://doi.org/10.1177/014616702237648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tarbetsky AL, Collie RJ, Martin AJ (2016) The role of implicit theories of intelligence and ability in predicting achievement for Indigenous (Aboriginal) Australian students. Contemp Educ Psychol 47:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tarrant M, North A, Edridge M, Kirk L, Smith E, Turner R (2001) Social identity in adolescence. J Adolesc 24(5):597–609.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.2000.0392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tatum B (1997) “Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?” And other conversations about race. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor VJ, Walton GM (2011) Stereotype threat undermines academic learning. Personal Soc Psychol Bull 37(8):1055–1067. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/home/pspCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Turner H, Rubie-Davies CM, Webber M (2015) Teacher expectations, ethnicity and the achievement gap. N Z J Educ Stud 50(1):55–69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40841-015-0004-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walsh M, Hickey C, Duffy J (1999) Influence of item content and stereotype situation on gender differences in mathematical problem solving. Sex Roles 41:219–240.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018854212358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Warren P (2017) A teacher like me: ethnic congruence and Pasifika student-teacher relationship. Unpublished master’s thesis, The University of AucklandGoogle Scholar
  73. Webber M (2008) Walking the space between: identity and Maori/Pakeha. New Zealand Council for Educational Research Press, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  74. Webber M (2011) Gifted and proud: on being academically exceptional and Maori. In: Whitinui P (ed) Ka tangi te titi – permission to speak: successful schooling for Maori students in the 21st century. New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington, pp 227–241Google Scholar
  75. Webber M (2012) Identity matters: racial-ethnic identity and Māori students. SET 2:20–27. Retrieved from http://www.nzcer.org.nz/nzcerpress/setGoogle Scholar
  76. Webber M (2015) Optimizing Maori student success with the other three Rs: racial-ethnic identity, resilience and responsiveness. In: Rubie-Davies C, Watson P, Stephens J (eds) The social psychology of the classroom international handbook. Routledge, New York, pp 102–111Google Scholar
  77. Webber M, McKinley E, Hattie J (2013) The importance of race and ethnicity: an exploration of New Zealand Pākeha, Māori, Samoan and Chinese adolescent identity. N Z J Psychol 42(2):17–28. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.nz/publications-media/new-zealand-journal-of-psychology/?#.WzIpkacza00Google Scholar
  78. Wellman D (1977) Portraits of Māori racism. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Wendt Samu T, Mara D, Siteine A (2008) Education for Pacific peoples for the 21st century. In: Carpenter VM, Jesson J, Roberts P, Stephenson M (eds) Ngā Kaupapa here: connections and contradictions in education. Cengage Learning, Victoria, pp 145–167Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education and Social WorkThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Section editors and affiliations

  • Radomir Compel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations