Ground Crack Landscape; Ground Fissure Landscape
Reference work entry
Ground fissure landscape is a general term for all types of ground cracks, including cracks of considerable length and width induced by natural processes (e.g., earth movement, hydraulic action) or by artificial causes. The formation of ground cracks is sometimes related to seismic activity, or the crack may be a precursor of an earthquake. Cracks may be a residual deformation feature after an earthquake; these are called seismic cracks. When cracks form in areas of human activities, they can become a geological disaster. For example, due to the excessive extraction of groundwater, a group of cracks formed in Xi’an across an area of approximately 155 km 2 (Figs. 39 and 40).
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