The geographical environment is the surface layer of the Earth that interacts with the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. The geographical range of human survival extends approximately 10–30 km from the Earth’s surface. It can be affected by the structural characteristics, composition and form of the Earth’s surface as well as the water and heat conditions. The structure of the geographical environment has obvious zonal characteristics. The geographical environment can be divided into natural, economic, social and cultural environments. They overlap and interrelate each other geographically and structurally to form a unified overall geographic environment.