Reference work entry
This is a landscape that is formed by volcanic gas emissions. In areas of hydrothermal activity associated with volcanic activity, vapor columns are abundant, and the small holes with emissions of steam or gas are called fumaroles. The emitted gas is mainly steam but can also include hydrogen sulphide, carbonate gas and boric acid. Yangmingshan in Taiwan has a large number of fumaroles, where sulphur vapour condenses to form sulphur crystals that fill the emission holes. Sulphur can be excavated from these holes. Fumaroles are also important for research on the prediction of volcanic eruptions (Fig. 16).
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